Annals of Biomedical Engineering

, Volume 8, Issue 4–6, pp 293–303 | Cite as

Closed-loop control in prosthetic systems: Historical perspective

  • Dudley S. Childress
Sensory Neural Prostheses


The control of artificial limbs and other restorative systems is discussed in terms of closed-loop control and sensory feedback. Feedback modalities are classified in three categories:
  1. (1)

    Supplemental Sensory Feedback

  2. (2)

    Artificial Reflexes

  3. (3)

    Control Interface Feedback.


Historical attempts to provide sensory feedback in prostheses are discussed and put in the context of more modern efforts in this area.


Historical Perspective Sensory Feedback Supplemental Sensory Restorative System Control Interface 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Pergamon Press Ltd. 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dudley S. Childress
    • 1
  1. 1.Prosthetics Research LaboratoryNorthwestern UniversityChicago

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