Combined near-infrared spectroscopy and multifrequency bio-impedance investigation of skin alterations in diabetes patients based on multivariate analyses

  • J. Nyström
  • B. Lindholm-Sethson
  • L. Stenberg
  • S. Ollmar
  • J. W. Eriksson
  • P. Geladi


A group of 34 diabetic men, with different degrees of diabetes complications, including skin changes, were studied by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and total body multi-frequency bio-impedance analyses (MFBIA-body). Skin reflectance spectra were measured with a fibre-optic probe in four locations (sites): hand, arm, leg and foot. As control subjects, a group of 23 healthy males were also measured. A combined multivariate analysis of the two types of spectrum was performed. It was concluded that the NIR method has the potential to detect diabetes-related skin conditions and also that the combination of the two techniques provides a higher potential for classification and discrimination of the skin conditions, with correct classification increasing from 63% to 85%.


NIR Total body bio-impedance Fibre-optic probe PCA Skin changes Diabetes 


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Copyright information

© IFMBE 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Nyström
    • 1
    • 2
  • B. Lindholm-Sethson
    • 1
    • 2
  • L. Stenberg
    • 1
  • S. Ollmar
    • 3
  • J. W. Eriksson
    • 4
  • P. Geladi
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUme⇘ UniversityUme⇘Sweden
  2. 2.Center for Biomedical Engineering and PhysicsUme⇘ UniversityUme⇘Sweden
  3. 3.Division of Medical EngineeringKarolinska InstitutetHuddingeSweden
  4. 4.Department of MedicineUme⇘ University HospitalUme⇘Sweden
  5. 5.The Unit of Biomass Technology & ChemistrySwedish University of Agricultural SciencesUme⇘Sweden

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