A spot check for estimating stereophotogrammetric errors

  • U. Della Croce
  • A. Cappozzo


Good practice rules in the management of a movement analysis laboratory recommend that photogrammetric measurement errors are assessed, prior to every experimental session, using an ad hoc experiment referred to as a spot check. The paper proposes an inexpensive and easy to make spot check. The test uses a rigid rod carrying two markers and a target point taken on the line joining them and coinciding with the rod tip. The latter point is placed in a fixed and measured position in the laboratory frame and the markers are tracked while the rod is kept stationary and while it is manually made to rotate about the target point. Several target points are used within the measurement volume. The instantaneous errors with which the laboratory co-ordinates of the latter points are reconstructed are determined and submitted to statistical analysis. A normalisation procedure is illustrated that aims at making the test results independent from the geometry of the test object. The experimental and analytical methods underlying the proposed spot check were validated experimentally in two movement analysis laboratories using repeated tests. A rod, 1.5 m long, carrying four markers was used. In this way, several test-object geometries were tested. Results confirmed that the photogrammetric error could be divided into a zero-mean random and a systematic component. It was shown that the normalisation procedure was effective for the standard deviation of both error components when the two markers were located at a distance between them 1.5 times larger than the distance of their centroid from the tip of the rod. The systematic component bias could not be normalised, however a conservative value of it could be estimated. The two above-mentioned normalised standard deviations and the bias value can be taken as descriptors of the photogrammetric error of the specific measuring system tested. These parameters may also be used to assess the precision and the accuracy with which the laboratory position of a target point, defined relative to any specified marker cluster, may be reconstructed during movement analysis.


Movement analysis Stereophotogrammetry Experimental errors Spot check 


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Copyright information

© IFMBE 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento di Scienze BiomedicheUniversità degli Studi di SassariItaly

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