Advertisement

Detecting absolute human knee angle and angular velocity using accelerometers and rate gyroscopes

  • R. Williamson
  • B. J. AndrewsEmail author
Article

Abstract

Knee joint angle and angular velocity were calculated in real time during standing up and sitting down. Two small modules comprising rate gyroscopes and accelerometers were attached to the thigh and shank of two able-bodied volunteers and one T5 ASIA(A) paraplegic assisted by functional electrical stimulation (FES). The offset and drift of the rate gyroscopes was compensated for by auto-resetting and auto-nulling algorithms. The tilt of the limb segments was calculated by combining the signals of the accelerometer and the rate gyroscope. The joint angle was calculated as the difference in tilt of the segments. The modules were also tested on a two-dimensional model. The mean differences between the rate gyroscope-accelerometer system and the reference goniometer for the model, able-bodied and paraplegic standing trials were 2.1°, 2.4° and 2.3° respectively for knee angle and 2.3° s−1, 5.0° s−1 and 11.8° s−1 respectively for knee velocity. The rate gyroscope-accelerometer system was more accurate than using the accelerometer as a tilt meter, possibly due to the greater bandwidth of the rate gyroscope-accelerometer system.

Keywords

Gait analysis FES Accelerometer Rate gyroscope Goniometer Motion sensors 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Analog Devices (1999) ADXL202 Data SheetGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrews, B. J., Barnett, R., Phillips, G., Kirkwood, C., Donaldson, N., Rushton, D., andPerkins, T. (1989): ‘Rule base control of a hybrid FES orthosis for assisting paraplegic locomotion’Automedica,11, pp. 175–199Google Scholar
  3. Andrews, B. J., andWilliamson, R. P. (1997): ‘The gyrogoniometer’, Proc. RESNA '97, pp. 262–264Google Scholar
  4. Biometrics trade literature: The model M180 flexible goniometer, UKGoogle Scholar
  5. Crago, P. F., Chizeck, H. J., Neuman, M. R., andHambrecht, F. T. (1986): ‘Sensors for use with functional neuromuscular stimulation’,IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.,33, pp. 256–268Google Scholar
  6. Crago, P. E., Lan, N., Veltink, P. H., Abbas, J. J., andKantor, C. (1996): ‘New control strategies for neuroprosthetic systems’,J. Rehab. Res. Devel.,33, pp. 158–172Google Scholar
  7. Heyn, R. E., Mayagoitia, A., Nene, V., andVeltink, P. H. (1996): ‘The kinematics of the swing phase obtained from accelerometer and gyroscope measurements’,Proc. IEEE EMBS, pp. 857–858Google Scholar
  8. Kataria, P., andAbbas, J. J. (1998): ‘Estimating body segment orientation using a lightweight, inexpensive gyroscope’. Proc. Biomed. Eng. Soc. Conf. P, S-133Google Scholar
  9. Kralj, A., andBajd, T. (1989): ‘Functional electrical stimulation: Standing and walking after spinal cord injury’ (CRC Press, CA)Google Scholar
  10. Luinge, H. J., Veltink, P. H., andBaten, C. T. M. (1999): ‘Estimating orientation with gyroscopes and accelerometers’ inVeltink, de Vries, Koopman andHermans (Eds): Proc. Int. Biomechatronics Workshop, 19–21 April, Enchede, Netherlands, pp. 214–218Google Scholar
  11. Miyazaki, S. (1997): ‘Long term unconstrained measurement of stride length and walking velocity utilizing a piezoelectric gyroscope’,IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.,44(8), pp. 753–759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Morris, J. R. (1973): ‘Accelerometry—a technique for the measurement of human body movements’,J. Biomech.,6, pp. 729–736Google Scholar
  13. Mulder, A. J., Veltink, P. H., Boom, H. B. K., andZilvold, G. (1992): ‘Low level finite state control of knee joint in paraplegic standing’,J. Biomed. Eng.,14, pp. 3–8Google Scholar
  14. MuRata data sheet, ENC-05EA rate gyroscope, MuRata JapanGoogle Scholar
  15. Petrofsky, J. S., Phillips, C. A., andHeaton, H. H. (1984): ‘Feedback control system for walking’,Comput. Biol. Med.,14, pp. 135–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Smidt, G. L., Deusinger, R. H., Arora, J., andAlbright, J. P. (1977): ‘An automated accelerometry system for gait analysis’,J. Biomech.,10, pp. 367–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Smidt, G. L., Arora, J. S., andJohnston, R. C. (1971): ‘Accelerographic analysis of several types of walking’,Am. J. Phys. Med.,50, pp. 285–300Google Scholar
  18. Willemsen, A. T., Frigo, C., andBoom, H. B. (1991): ‘Lower extremity angle measurement with accelerometers—error and sensitivity analysis’,IEEE Biomed. Eng.,38, pp. 1186–1189Google Scholar

Copyright information

© IFMBE 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Second SightLLCStanfordUSA
  2. 2.National Spinal Injuries Center at the Stoke Mandeville HospitalUK
  3. 3.Department of CyberneticsUniversity of ReadingUK

Personalised recommendations