Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing

, Volume 43, Issue 1, pp 107–114 | Cite as

Human standing posture control system depending on adopted strategies

  • N. Fujisawa
  • T. Masuda
  • H. Inaoka
  • Y. Fukuoka
  • A. Ishida
  • H. Minamitani
Article

Abstract

Control of the standing posture of humans involves at least two distinct modes of operation to restore the body balance in the sagittal plane: the ankle strategy and the hip strategy. The objective of the study was to estimate the contribution of vestibular, visual and somatosensory feedbacks to these distinct strategies. The body dynamics was described as the motion of two linked rigid segments that represented the legs and the rest of the body. The posture controller received the inclination angles of the two body segments as inputs and regulated the moments around the ankle and hip joints. The controller had four feedback paths that were characterised by transfer functions connecting the two inputs and the two outputs. To evoke the distinct strategies, the floor conditions were varied by narrowing the support surface under the feet. A continuous pseudo-random external disturbing force was applied to the waist and the thigh independently. The inclination angles of the body segments and the ground reaction force were measured, and the transfer functions of the controller were estimated with the maximum-likelihood system identification procedure. Six healthy male adult subjects participated in the experiment. When the hip strategy became evident under the narrow support surface conditions, the transfer function relating the leg inclination angle and the ankle joint moment decreased its DC gain (16%), whereas the other three transfer functions increased the gains (20–140%) (ANOVA, p<0.05). Based on a criterion for simplicity in the modification of the posture controller, these changes suggest a new hypothesis that, when posture control becomes difficult, the central nervous system selectively activates the somatosensory feedback paths from the hip joint angle to the moments around the ankle and hip joints.

Keywords

Standing posture Balance Control Strategy Transfer function Frequency response 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allum, J. H. J., Bloem, B. R., Carpenter, M. G., Hulliger, M., andHadders-Algra, M. (1998): ‘Proprioceptive control of posture: a review of new concepts’,Gait Posture,8, pp. 214–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Astrom, K. J. (1980): ‘Maximum likelihood and prediction error methods’,Automatica,16, pp. 551–574Google Scholar
  3. Bresler, B., andFrankel, J. P. (1950): ‘The forces and moments in the leg during level walking’, Trans. ASME,72, pp. 27–36Google Scholar
  4. Fitzpatrick, R. C., Taylor, J. L., andMcCloskey, D. I. (1992): ‘Ankle stiffness of standing humans in response to imperceptible perturbation: reflex and task-dependent components’,J. Physiol. (Lond.),454, pp. 533–547Google Scholar
  5. Forssberg, H., andHirschfeld, H. (1994): ‘Postural adjustments in sitting humans following external perturbations: muscle activity and kinematics’,Exp. Brain Res.,97, pp. 515–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Horak, F. B., andNashner, L. M. (1986): ‘Central programming of postural movements: adaptation to altered support-surface configurations’,J. Neurophysiol.,55, pp. 1369–1381Google Scholar
  7. Horak, F. B., Nashner, L. M., andDiener, H. C. (1990): ‘Postural strategies associated with somatosensory and vestibular loss’,Exp. Brain Res.,82, pp. 167–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kuo, A. D., andZajac, F. E. (1993): ‘Human standing posture: multijoint movement strategies based on biomechanical constraints’, inAllum, J. H. J., Allum-Mecklenburg, D. J., Harris, F. P., andProbst, R. (Eds): ‘Progress in brain research’ (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1993),97, pp. 349–358Google Scholar
  9. Kuo, A. D., Speers, R. A., Peterka, R. J., andHorak, F. B. (1998): ‘Effect of altered sensory conditions on multivariate descriptors of human postural sway’,Exp. Brain Res.,122, pp. 185–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Mergner, T., Maurer, C., andPeterka, R. J. (2002): ‘Sensory contribution to the control of stance: posture control model’,Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.,508, pp. 147–152Google Scholar
  11. Miyazaki, S. (1992): ‘A simple and practical method for evaluating overall measurement error of joint moments obtained by a force plate and position sensing device’,Frontiers Med. Biol. Eng.,4, pp. 257–270Google Scholar
  12. Nashner, L. M., andMcCollum, G. (1985): ‘The organization of human postural movements: a formal basis and experimental synthesis’,Behav. Brain Sci.,8, pp. 135–172Google Scholar
  13. Nashner, L. M., Shupert, C. L., andHorak, F. B. (1988): ‘Headtrunk movement coordination in the standing posture’,Prog. Brain Res.,76, pp. 243–251Google Scholar
  14. Peterka, R. J. (2002): ‘Sensorimotor integration in human postural control’,J. Neurophysiol.,88, pp. 1097–1118Google Scholar
  15. Peterka, R. J., andLoughlin, P. J. (2004): ‘Dynamic regulation of sensorimotor integration in human postural control’,J. Neurophysiol.,91, pp. 410–423Google Scholar
  16. Runge, C. F., Shupert, C. L., Horak, F. B., andZajac, F. E. (1998): ‘Role of yestibular information in initiation of rapid postural responses’,Exp. Brain Res.,122, pp. 403–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Runge, C. F., Shupert, C. L., Horak, F. B., andZajac, F. E. (1999): ‘Ankle and hip postural strategies defined by joint torques’,Gait Posture,10, pp. 161–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Van der Kooij, H., Jacobs, R., Koopman, B., andGrootenboer, H. (1999): ‘A multisensory integration model of human stance control’,Biol. Cybern.,80, pp. 299–308Google Scholar
  19. Van der Kooij, H., Jacobs, R., Koopman, B., andVan der Helm, F. (2001): ‘An adaptive model of sensory integration in a dynamic environment applied to human stance control’,Biol. Cybern.,84, pp. 103–115Google Scholar
  20. Vaughan, C. L., Davis, B. L., andO'Conner, J. C. (1992): ‘Dynamics of human gait’ (Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, 1992)Google Scholar
  21. Winter, D. A. (1990): ‘Biomechanics and motor control of human movement’ (Wiley, New York, 1990)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© FMBE 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Fujisawa
    • 1
  • T. Masuda
    • 2
  • H. Inaoka
    • 3
  • Y. Fukuoka
    • 2
  • A. Ishida
    • 3
  • H. Minamitani
    • 1
  1. 1.Graduate School of Science & TechnologyKeio UniversityYokohamaJapan
  2. 2.School of Biomedical ScienceTokyo Medical & Dental UniversityTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Institute of Biomaterials & Biomedical EngineeringTokyo Medical & Dental UniversityTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations