Journal of Plant Research

, Volume 106, Issue 3, pp 213–217 | Cite as

Pollination biology of the saprophytic speciesPetrosavia sakuraii (Makino) van Steenis in Central Japan

  • Hiroshi Takahashi
  • Eiji Nishio
  • Hirotaka Hayashi
Original Articles


Pollination biology of the saprophytic speciesPetrosavia sakuraii was investigated in Central Japan. The flower opens at any time of the day, and the anthers of outer stamens dehisce after about one day and those of the inner stamens after two days. The stigmata on the semicarpous (nearly apocarpous) pistil, which are already receptive when the flower opens, are situated in the center of the flower and move gradually outwards to touch the anthers of outer stamens about five days after anthesis. The breeding experiments show that the stigmata are receptive at least for five days, and many seeds are produced through autonomous self-pollination. That means the nearly apocarpous pistil, which is in a primitive condition, is adapted to the autonomous self-pollination. The selfing rate including insect-mediated self-pollination is very high, and this sexual-reproductive system seems favorable to the saprophytic plant which is probably severely limited in its resources. However, cross-pollination also may be performed by the small bees of Lasioglossum and some other insects, even though they do not so frequently visit the flowers and the out-crossing rate is low.

Key words

Petrosavia sakuraij Pollination Protogyny Saprophyte Self-pollination 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Akazawa, T. andTamura, M. 1924.Protolirion sakuraii occurring in Kyoto. Acta Phytotax. Geobot.15: 138 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  2. Beaman, R.S., Dicker, P.J. andBeaman J.H. 1988. Pollination ofRafflesia (Rafflesiaceae). Amer. J. Bot.75: 1148–1162.Google Scholar
  3. Beattie, A.J., Turnbull, C., Knox, R.B. andWilliams, E.G. 1984. Ant inhibition of pollen function: a possible reason why ant pollination is rare. Amer. J. Bot.71: 421–426.Google Scholar
  4. Beattie, A., Turnbull, C., Hough, T., Jobson, S. andKnox, R.B. 1985. The vulnerability of pollen and fungal spores to ant secretions: evidence and some evolutionary implications. Amer. J. Bot.72: 606–614.Google Scholar
  5. Bernhardt, P. andThien, L.B. 1987. Self-isolation and insect pollination in the primitive angiosperms: new evaluations of older hypotheses. Pl. Syst. Evol.156: 159–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Charnov, E.L. 1987. On sex allocation and selfing in higher plants. Evol. Ecol.1: 30–36.Google Scholar
  7. Chen, S. 1980.Petrosavia.In Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae, vol. 14, pp. 12–13. Science Press, Peking (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  8. Cronquist, A. 1981. An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Cruden, R.W. 1977. Pollen-ovule ratios: a conservative indicator of breeding systems in flowering plants. Evolution31: 32–46.Google Scholar
  10. Cruden, R.W. andLyon, D.L. 1985. Patterns of biomass allocation to male and female functions in plants with different mating systems. Oecologia66: 299–306.Google Scholar
  11. Dahlgren, R.M.T., Clifford, H.T. andYeo, P.F. 1985. The Families of the Monocotyledons. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  12. Faegri, K. andvan der Pijl, L. 1971. The principles of Pollination Ecology. 2ed. Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  13. Hull, D.A. andBeattie, A.J. 1988. Adverse effects on pollen exposed toAtta texana and other North American ants: implications for ant pollination. Oecologia75: 153–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hutchinson, J. 1973. The Families of Flowering Plants, 3 ed. Oxford University Press, London.Google Scholar
  15. Inoue, K. 1990. Dichogamy, sex allocation, and mating system ofCampanula microdonta andC. punctata. Plant Species Biol.5: 197–203.Google Scholar
  16. Krause, K. 1930. Liliaceae. In A. Engler and K. Plantle, ed., Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, 2ed. vol. 15a, pp. 227–386. Engelmann, Leipzig.Google Scholar
  17. Lovett Doust J. andCavers, P.B. 1982. Biomass allocation in hermaphroditic flowers. Can. J. Bot.60: 2530–2534.Google Scholar
  18. Lloyd, D.G. andWebb, C.J. 1986. The avoidance of interference between the presentation of pollen and stigmas in angiosperms I. Dichogamy. New Zeal. J. Bot.24: 135–162.Google Scholar
  19. Makino, T. 1903. Observations on the flora of Japan. Bot. Mag. Tokyo17: 144–152.Google Scholar
  20. Melchior, H. 1964. Liliiflorae,In H. Melchior, ed., A. Engler's Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien vol. 2, pp. 513–543. Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin.Google Scholar
  21. Mizuno, M., Tanaka, T., Hukuhara, H. andSuzuki, T. 1974. On the habitat ofProtolirion sakuraii Dandy. J. Geobot.21: 70–80 (in Japanease with English summary).Google Scholar
  22. Ohba, H. 1984. A review ofPetrosavia (Liliaceae), with special reference to the floral features. Journ. Jap. Bot.59: 106–110 (in Japanese with English summary).Google Scholar
  23. Peakall, R., Handel, S.N. andBeattie, A.J. 1991. The evidence for, and importance of, ant pollination.In C.R. Huxley and D.F. Cutler, ed., Ant-Plant Interactions, pp. 421–429. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  24. Schoen, D. 1982. Male reproductive effort and breeding system in an hermaphrodite plant. Oecologia53: 255–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Takahashi, H. 1984. The floral biology ofTricyrtis latifolia Maxim. (Liliaceae). Bot. Mag. Tokyo97: 207–217.Google Scholar
  26. Takahashi, H. 1987. A comparative floral and pollination biology ofTricyrtis flava Maxim.,T. nana Yatabe andT. ohsumiensis Masamune (Liliaceae). Bot. Mag. Tokyo100: 185–203.Google Scholar
  27. Thien, L.B. 1974. Floral biology ofMagnolia. Amer. J. Bot.61: 1037–1045.Google Scholar
  28. Watanabe, K. 1944. Morphologisch-biologische Studien überMiyoshia Sakuraii Makino. Journ. Jap. Bot.20: 85–93 (In Japanese with Germany summary).Google Scholar
  29. Willemstein, S.C. 1987. An Evolutionary Basis for Pollination Ecology. Leiden University Press, Leiden.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Botanical Society of Japan 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hiroshi Takahashi
    • 1
  • Eiji Nishio
    • 1
  • Hirotaka Hayashi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biology, Faculty of EducationGifu UniversityGifuJapan

Personalised recommendations