Evolution of structure and substrate specificity ind-alanine:d-Alanine ligases and related enzymes
- 69 Downloads
Thed-alanine:d-alanine-ligase-related enzymes can have three preferential substrate specificities. Usually, these enzymes synthesized-alanyl-d-alanine. In vancomycin-resistant Gram-positive bacteria, structurally related enzymes synthesized-alanyl-d-lactate or Dalanyl-d-serine. The sequence of internal fragments of eight structurald-alanine:d-alanine ligase genes from enterococci has been determined. Alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences with those of other related enzymes from Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria revealed the presence of four distinct sequence patterns in the putative substrate-binding sites, each correlating with specificity to a particular substrate (d-alanine:d-lactate ligases exhibited two patterns). Phylogenetic analysis showed different clusters. The enterococcal subtree was largely superimposable on that derived from 16S rRNA sequences. In lactic acid bacteria, structural divergence due to differences in substrate specificity was observed. Glycopeptide resistance proteins VanA and VanB, the VanC-type ligases, and Dd1A and DdlB from enteric bacteria andHaemophilus influenzae constituted separate clusters.
Key wordsCell-wall synthesis Peptidoglycan Enterococcus Glycopeptides Antibiotic resistance
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Ausubel FM, Brent R, Kingston RE, Moore DD, Seidman JG, Smith JA, Struhl K (1987) Current protocols in molecular biology. John Wiley & Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Billot-Klein D, Gutmann L, Sablé S, Guittet E, van Heijenoort J (1994) Modification of peptidoglycan precursors is a common feature of the low-level vancomycin-resistant VANB-typeEnterococcus D366 and of the naturally glycopeptide-resistant speciesLactobacillus casei, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, andEnterococcus gallinarum. J Bacteriol 176:2398–2405PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Collins MD, Rodrigues U, Ash C, Aguirre M, Farrow JAE, Martinez-Murcia A, Phillips BA, Williams AM, Wallbanks S (1991) Phylogenetic analysis of the genusLactobacillus and related lactic acid bacteria as determined by reverse transcriptase sequencing of 16S rRNA. FEMS Microbiol Lett 77:5–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Felsenstein J (1985) Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39:783–791Google Scholar
- Felsenstein J (1993) PHYLIP version 3.5c. University of Washington, SeattleGoogle Scholar
- Fitch W (1971) Toward defining the course of evolution: minimum change for a specified tree topology. Syst Zool 20:406–416Google Scholar
- Van der Auwera P, Pensart N, Korten V, Murray BE, Leclercq R (1996) Influence of oral glycopeptides (vancomycin and teicoplanin) on the fecal flora of human volunteers: selection of highlyglycopeptide-resistant strains. J Infect Dis (in press)Google Scholar