, Volume 67, Issue 2, pp 273–276 | Cite as

On the semantics of Old Englishcempa andcampian

  • Joyce Hill


Comparative Literature Historical Linguistic 
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  1. 1.
    Stephen Morrison, “OfCempa in Cynewulf'sJuliana and the Figure of theMiles Christi,”ELN, 17 (1979), 81–84.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Claude Schneider, “Cynewulf's devaluation of heroic tradition inJuliana,”Anglo-Saxon England, 7 (1978), 107–118; 117.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    In Anglo-Latin hagiography it is used, for example, in theVita Cuthberti and in theVita Guthlaci: B. P. Kurtz. “From St. Antony to St. Guthlac. A Study in Biography,”University of California Publications in Modern Philology, 12 (1926), 107. For Cuthbert, see B. Colgrave, ed.,Two Lives of Saint Cuthbert (Cambridge, 1940); for Guðlac, see B. Colgrave, ed.,Felix's Life of Saint Guthlac (Cambridge, 1956).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Joyce Hill, “The Soldier of Christ in Old English Prose and Poetry,”Leeds Studies in English, 12 (1981), 56–80.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Morrison, p. 83.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    A number of examples is provided by Morrison, p. 84, who rightly notes that other examples could be adduced. Particularly striking is the evidence for consistent practice provided by the OEMartyrology and the Gospel glosses, wherecempa is regulary used for the frequent mention of Roman soldiers: George Herzfeld, ed.,An Old English Martyrology, EETS OS 116 (London, 1900), pp. 24, 36, 66, 78, 82, 100, 118, 124, 142, 166, 174, 194; Gospel glosses include Matthew xxvii. 27, xxviii. 12, Mark xv. 16, Luke iii.14, vii.8, xxiii.36, John xix. 23, 24, 32, 34, in C. Hardwick, ed.,The Gospel According to Saint Matthew, in Anglo-Saxon and Northumbrian Versions Synoptically Arranged (Cambridge, 1858), W. W. Skeat. ed.,The Gospel According to Saint Mark in Anglo-Saxon and Northumbrian Versions Synoptically Arranged (Cambridge, 1871), W. W. Skeat, ed.,The Gospel According to Saint Luke in Anglo-Saxon and Northumbrian Versions Synoptically Arranged (Cambridge, 1874), W. W. Skeat. ed.,The Gospel According to Saint John in Anglo-Saxon and Northumbrian Versions Synoptically Arranged (Cambridge, 1878).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fr. Klaeber, ed.,Beowulf and the Fight at Finnsburg, 3rd. ed. (Boston, 1950) conveniently marks in his glossary those words or meanings found only in poetry.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Malcolm Godden, ed.,Ælfrie's Catholic Homilies: The Second Series, EETS SS5 (London, 1979), p. 16.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Max Förster, ed.,Die Vercelli-Homilien, I–VIII Homilie, Bibliothek der angelsächsischen Prosa, Bd. XII (Hamburg, 1932), p. 117.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    C. Mohrmann, “La Langue de Saint Benoit” inSancti Benedicti Regula Monachorum, ed. P. Schmitz (Maredsous, 1955), pp. 9–39. See also, E. Manning, “La Signification deMilitare — Militia — Miles dans la Règle de Saint Benoit,”Revue Benedictine, 72 (1962), 135–38.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Adolf Harnack,“Militia Christi”: Die christliche Religion und der Soldatenstand in den ersten drei Jahrhunderten (Tübingen, 1905); Johann Auer. “Militia Christi: Zur Geschichte eines christlichen Grundbildes,”Zeitschrift für Aszese und Mystik, 32 (1959), 340–51.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Arnold Schröer, ed.,Die angelsächsischen Prosabearbeitungen der Benedictinerregel, Bibliothek der angelsächsischen Prosa. Bd. 2 (Kassel, 1885–88), pp. 111 and 23.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    H. Logeman, ed.,The Rule of S. Benet, EETS OS 90 (London, 1888), p. 96.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schröer, p. 97 (and note also the choice ofgecamp on pp. 5, 9, where, since the OE text is a translation, the syntactical structure differs from the Latin and a noun is needed in OE to translate the Latin verb); Logeman, pp. 1, 5, 9, 102. For a discussion of these examples, see my article inLSE 12 (1981), 59.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    T. Wright and R. Wülcker, eds.,Anglo-Saxon and Old English Vocabularies (London, 1884). The glosses, which are given in vol. I. are cols. 341, item 21, and 342, item 15.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    George Herzfeld, ed.,An Old English Martyrology, EETS OS 116 (London, 1900).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    I am indebted to Professor J. E. Cross of the University of Liverpool for information about the practice of the martyrologist in his opening formulas and for details about the sources of these two items. In a private letter he has generously provided the following facts: “For Mamas (Mammes) the source is the version printed by Mombritius.Sanctuarium as Herzfeld noted. . . But all thepassio says for the opening sentence is.Erat in Cesarea Capadociae puer annorum duodecim nomine Mammes (Mames). For Vitus Herzfeld notes Mombritius (= Passio 3, BHL 8714) but this version (as printed by Momb.) omits a whole section included in OEM. The source is BHL 8712 (Passio 2a-unpublished).”Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    InGuðlac A, where the poet consciously presents Guðlac as amiles Christi, cempa is again the word most commonly used to designate Guðlac as a soldier (of Christ), probably because it does not have peculiarly heroic connotations which might confuse the audience. TheGuðlac A poet's discriminating usage is examined at length in my article inLSE 12 (1981), 65–69.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    The mistakes are at times inexcusable. Derek Pearsall,Old and Middle English Poetry (London, 1977), pp. 27–28, clearly implies that Bede's description, in Latin, of Cuthbert as a soldier of Christ was inspired by the native heroic traditions with their military emphasis.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Wolters-Noordhoff 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joyce Hill
    • 1
  1. 1.School of EnglishUniversity of LeedsLeedsEngland

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