Environmental Geochemistry and Health

, Volume 8, Issue 3, pp 68–70 | Cite as

Air lead, blood lead and travel by car

  • P. C. Elwood
  • J. E. J. Gallacher
  • C. Toothill
Article
  • 17 Downloads

Abstract

Evidence on the relevance of lead in petrol to lead in blood has come from two main sources. Cross sectional studies of blood lead levels in population samples and in the air to which they are exposed suggest that petrol makes only a very small contribution. However longitudinal studies in the USA in which changes in lead levels in petrol and changes in blood lead have been studied suggest that petrol makes a substantial contribution to blood lead. The possibility that this discrepancy might be explained by the exposure of subjects to very high levels of lead when travelling in motor vehicles is examined, and rejected.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Angle C.R. & McIntire M.S. 1979. Environmental lead and children: the Omaha study.J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 5, 855–70.Google Scholar
  2. Angle, C.R., Marcus, A., Cheng, I-Hui & Mcintire, M.S. 1984. Omaha childhood blood lead and environmental lead: a linear total exposure model.Environ. Res. 35, 160–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Annest, J.L., Pirkle, J.L., Makuc D. et al., 1983. Chronological trend in blood lead levels between 1976 and 1980.N. Engl. J. Med. 308, 1373–7.Google Scholar
  4. Azar, A., Snee, R.D. & Habibi, K. 1975. An epidemiologic approach to community air lead exposure using personal air samplers.Lead Environ. Qual. Saf. Suppl. 2, 254–88.Google Scholar
  5. Department of the Environment (1981). European community screening programme for lead: United Kingdom results for 1979–80. Pollution Report No. 10, H.M.S.O.Google Scholar
  6. Elwood, P.C., 1983a. Changes in blood lead concentrations in women in Wales 1972–84.Br. Med. J. 286, 1553–55.Google Scholar
  7. Elwood, P.C. 1983b. Blood lead and petrol lead.Br. Med. J. 286, 1515.Google Scholar
  8. Elwood, P.C. 1984. Abuses of epidemiology in environmental research. Proceedings of an International Conference on Environmental Pollution, pp. 249–56. CEP Consultants Ltd., Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  9. Elwood, P.C., Gallacher, J.E.J., Phillips, K.M. et al. 1984. Greater contribution to blood lead from water than from air.Nature 310, 138–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Elwood, P.C. & Toothill, C. 1985. Further evidence of a fall in blood lead.J. Epidemiol. Community Health. (In press).Google Scholar
  11. Elwood, P.C.et al. 1985. Changes in cord blood lead levels in Swansea, South Wales. (In preparation).Google Scholar
  12. Elwood, W.J., Clayton, B.E., Cox, R.A. et al. 1977. Lead in human blood and in the environment near a battery factory.Br. J. Prev. Soc. Med. 31, 154–63.Google Scholar
  13. E.P.A. 1984. Air quality criteria for lead. US Environmental Protection Agency. EPA 600/8-83-028A.Google Scholar
  14. Malpress, W.A., Janus, E.D. & Hinton, D. 1984. Blood lead levels in the New Zealand population: preliminary communication.N. Z. Med. J 97, 869.Google Scholar
  15. Rabinowitz, M. 1982. Temporal trends in the lead concentrations of umbilical cord blood.Science 216, 1429–30.Google Scholar
  16. Rabinowitz, M., Needleman, H., Burley, M. et al. 1984. Lead in umbilical blood, indoor air, tap water and gasoline in Boston.Arch. Environ. Health 39, 299–301.Google Scholar
  17. Roels, H.A., Buchet, J-P., Lauwerys, R.R., et al. 1980. Exposure to lead by the oral and the pulmonary routes of children living in the vicinity of a primary lead smetter.Environ. Research 22, 81–94.Google Scholar
  18. Snee, R.D. 1981. Models for the relationship between blood lead and air lead.Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 50, 303–19.Google Scholar
  19. Tonkelaar, W.A.M. der. & Tuin, J. van der. 1982. Luchtverontreiniging in Auto's. Instituut voor milieuhygiene en gezondheidstechniek, IMG-TNO 2600 AE Delft.Google Scholar
  20. Tosteson, T.D., Spengler, J.D. & Weker, R.A. 1982. Aluminium, iron and lead content of respirable particulate samples from a personal monitoring study.Environ. International 8, 265–68.Google Scholar
  21. Yankel, A.J., Von Lindern, I.H. & Walter, S.D. 1977. The Silver Valley lead study: the relationship between childhood blood lead levels and environmental exposureJ. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 27, 763–67.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science and Technology Letters 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. C. Elwood
    • 1
  • J. E. J. Gallacher
    • 1
  • C. Toothill
    • 2
  1. 1.M.R.C. Epidemiology Unit (South Wales)CardiffSouth Wales
  2. 2.Supra Regional Lead Laboratory, Dept. of Chemical PathologyOld Medical SchoolLeedsEngland

Personalised recommendations