Advertisement

Journal of Biological Physics

, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp 1–41 | Cite as

A review of the applications of solid state physics concepts to biological systems

  • Freeman W. Cope
Article

Abstract

The evidence for solid state physical processes in diverse biological systems is reviewed. Semiconduction of electrons across the enzyme particles as the rate-limiting process in cytochrome oxidase is evidenced by the peculiar kinetic patterns of this enzyme and by microwave Hall effect measurements. PN junction conduction of electrons is suggested by kinetics of photobiological free radicals in eye and photosynthesis. Superconduction at physiological temperatures may be involved in growth and nerve. Phonons and polarons seem likely to be involved in mitochondrial phosphorylation. Piezoelectricity and pyroelectricity may be involved in growth and nerve. Infrared electromagnetic waves may transmit energy in lipid bilayers of nerve and mitochondria. Complexed sodium and potassium ions in structured cell water may be analogous to valence band electrons in a semiconductor, and the free cations may be considered analogous to conduction band electrons. Ionic processes in cell water therefore resemble electronic conduction processes in solid semiconductors, which leads to kinetic predictions in agreement with experiment. The future of solid state biology depends on the development of new experimental methods able to measure solid state physical properties in biological materials which are non-crystalline, impure, particulate, and wet.

Keywords

Band Electron Hall Effect Measurement Cell Water Conduction Band Electron State Biology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    A. Szent-Györgyi,Science,93 (1941) 609.ADSGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    B. Rosenberg and E. Postow,Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.,158 (1969) 161.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    F. W. Cope,Adv. Biol. Med. Physics,13 (1970) 1.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    F. Gutmann and L. E. Lyons,Organic Semiconductors (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1967).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    L. I. Boguslavskii and A. V. Vannikov,Organic Semiconductors and Biopolymers (Plenum Press, New York, 1970).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    D. D. Eley, inHorizons in Biochemistry (M. Kasha and B. Pullman, eds.) (Academic Press, New York, 1962), pages 341–380.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    B. Rosenberg,Nature (London),193 (1962) 364.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    B. Rosenberg,J. Chem. Phys.,36 (1962) 816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. V. Vannikov and L. I. Boguslavskii,Biofizika,14 (1969) 421.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    F. W. Cope,Arch. Biochem. Biophys.,103 (1963) 325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    K. D. Straub,Semiconduction in Certain Proteins (Ph.D. Thesis, Biochemistry Dept., Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, 1967).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    F. W. Cope and K. D. Straub,Bull. Math. Biophys.,31 (1970) 761.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    E. M. Trukhan,Priborg i Tekhnika Eksperimenta (Experimental Instruments and Techniques), No. 4 (1965) 198.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    E. M. Trukhan,Biofizika,11 (1966) 412.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    E. M. Trukhan, N. F. Perewoschikof, and M. A. Ostrowski,Biofizika,15 (1970) 1052.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    D. D. Eley and R. Pethig,Disc. Faraday Soc.,51 (1971) 164.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    D. D. Eley and R. Pethig, inConduction in Low-Mobility Materials (Taylor and Francis, London, 1971).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    D. D. Eley and R. Pethig,J. Bioenergetics,2 (1971) 39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    D. D. Eley, R. J. Meyer, and R. Pethig,J. Bioenergetics,3 (1972) 271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    D. D. Eley, R. J. Meyer, and R. Pethig,J. Bioenergetics,4 (1973) 389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    S. Y. Chai and P. O. Vogelhut,J. Appl. Physics,38 (1967) 613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    R. Pethig,J. Biol. Phys.,1 (1973) 193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    K. D. Straub, inFirst European Biophysics Congress (E. Broda, A. Locker and H. Springer-Lederer eds.) (Verlag der Wiener Medizinischen Akademie, Vienna, 1972) Vol. E6/16, pages 265–267.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    K. D. Straub,J. Theoret. Biol.,44 (1974) 191.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    F. W. Cope,Bull. Math. Biol.,35 (1973) 627.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    P. Mühlig,Abh. Deutsch. Akad. Wissenschaft zu Berlin (Klasse für Medizin) No. 4 (1966) 55.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    D. deVault and B. Chance,Biophys J.,6 (1966) 825.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    T. Holstein,Ann. Phys. (N.Y.),8 (1959) 325.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    T. Holstein,Ann. Phys. (N. Y.),8 (1959) 343.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    W. Siebrand,J. Chem. Phys.,41 (1964) 3574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    R. D. Parks (ed.)Superconductivity (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1969).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    I. O. Kulik,The Josephson Effect in Superconductive Tunneling Structures (Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, 1972).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    L. Solymar,Superconductive Tunneling and Applications (Wiley, New York, 1972).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    W. A. Little,Phys. Rev.,134 (1964) A1416.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    W. A. Little,Sci. Amer.,212 (1965) 21.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    V. L. Ginzburg,Soviet Phys. Uspekhii,13 (1970) 335.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    L. Pauling,J. Chem. Phys.,4 (1936) 673.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    F. London,J. Phys. Radium,8 (1937) 397.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    J. I. Musher,J. Chem. Phys.,43 (1965) 4081.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    J. I. Musher,Adv. Magnetic Resonance,2 (1966) 177.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    J. A. Pople, W. G. Schneider and H. J. Bernstein,High-Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1959).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    B. P. Dailey,J. Chem. Phys.,41 (1964) 2304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    J. A. Pople and K. Untch,J. Am. Chem. Soc.,88 (1966) 4811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    J. A. Pople,Disc. Faraday Soc.,34 (1962) 7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    L. M. Jackman, F. Sondheimer, Y. Amiel, D. A. Ben-Efraim, Y. Gaoni, R. Wolovsky and A. A. Bothner-By,J. Am. Chem. Soc.,84 (1962) 4307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    V. L. Ginzburg,Phys. Lett.,13 (1964) 101.ADSGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    V. L. Ginzburg,Contemp. Phys.,9 (1968) 355.ADSGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    M. H. Cohen and D. H. Douglass,Phys. Rev. Lett.,19 (1967) 118.ADSGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    E. H. Halpern and A. A. Wolf, inCryogenic Engineering, Vol. 17 (K. D. Timmerhaus ed.) (Plenum Press, New York, 1972).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    E. H. Halpern,High Temperature Nonmetallic Superconductors (Report #6-165) (Naval Ship Research and Development Center, Annapolis, Md., 1971).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    E. H. Halpern,High-Temperature Nonmetallic Superconductors (Report #3917) (Naval Ship Research and Development Center, Annapolis, Md., 1973).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    S. Goldfein,Physiol. Chem. and Physics,6 (1974) 261.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    F. W. Cope,Physiol. Chem. and Physics,6 (1974) 405.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    K. Antonowicz,Nature (London),247 (1974) 358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    E. L. Frankevich,Disc. Faraday Soc.,51 (1971) 37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    F. W. Cope,Physiol. Chem. and Physics,3 (1971) 403.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    M. R. Pereira, L. G. Nutini, J. C. Fardon and E. S. Cook,Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med.,124 (1967) 573.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    E. S. Cook, J. C. Fardon, and L. G. Nutini, inBiological Effects of Magnetic Fields, Vol. 2 (M. F. Barnothy, ed.) (Plenum Press, New York, 1967).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    F. W. Cope,Physiol. Chem. and Physics,5 (1973) 173.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    D. E. Beischer,Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.,188 (1971) 324.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    A. von Hippel,Molecular Science and Molecular Engineering (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1959) page 252.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    C. A. L. Bassett and R. O. Becker,Science,137 (1962) 1063.ADSGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    M. H. Shamos, L. S. Lavine, and M. I. Shamos,Nature (London),197 (1963) 81.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    V. A. Bazhenov,Piezoelectric Properties of Wood (Plenum Press, New York, 1961).Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    E. Giebe and A. Scheibe,Zeitschr. f. Physik,33 (1925) 760.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    S. B. Elings and P. Terpstra,Zeitschr. Krist.,67 (1928) 279.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    R. Livingston,Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.,55 (1952) 800.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    L. Frenkel,J. of Res. of Nat. Bu. Stand.,67C (1963) 197.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    J. Duchesne and A. Monfils,Bul. Acad. Roy. Belg. (class Sci.),41 (1955) 165.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    D. Vasilescu, inPhysico-Chemical Properties of Nucleic Acids (J. Duchesne, ed.) Vol. 1 (Academic Press, New York, 1973).Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    J. Duchesne and A. Monfils,J. Chem. Phys.,23 (1955) 762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    J. Duchesne and A. Monfils,Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris,241 (1955) 749.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    J. Duchesne and A. Monfils,Nature (London),188 (1960) 405.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    J. Duchesne, inHorizons in Biochemistry (M. Kasha and B. Pullman eds.) (Academic Press, New York, 1962).Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    S. Toulsky and M. Read,Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris,261 (1965) 4251.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    S. Toulsky and M. Read,Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris,260 (1965) 7030Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    S. V. Tulskyi, A. K. Kuhushkin and L. A. Blumenfeld, inMolecular Biophysics (G. M. Frank, ed.) (NAUK, Moscow, 1965), pages 41–51 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    R. Fürth,Proc. Roy. Soc. (London),A180 (1942) 285.ADSGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    T. G. Gibbons,J. Chem. Phys.,60 (1974) 1094.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    C. A. L. Bassett, inPhysical and Rehabilitation Medicine (Darling and Downey, eds.) (Saunders, Philadelphia, 1971).Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    C. A. L. Bassett, R. J. Pawluk, and R. O. Becker,Nature (London) 204 (1964) 652.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    R. O. Becker, C. A. L. Bassett, and C. H. Bachman, inBone Biodynamics (H. M. Frost, ed.) (Little Brown and Co., Boston, 1964).Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    S. D. Smith,Anat. Record,158 (1967) 89.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    R. O. Becker, D. G. Murray,Clin. Orthopedics and Rel. Res.,73 (1970) 169.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    R. O. Becker,Nature (London),235 (1972) 109.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    R. O. Becker,J. Bone and Joint Surg.,43A (1961) 643.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    R. O. Becker,Clin. Orthopedics,83 (1972) 255.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    R. O. Becker,Bull. N.Y. Acad. Med.,48 (1972) 627.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    S. M. Evans,J. Indust. Hygiene and Tox.,30 (1948) 353.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    S. M. Evans and W. Zeit,J. Lab. Clin. Med.,34 (1949) 592.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    S. M. Evans and W. Zeit,J. Lab. Clin. Med.,34 (1949) 610.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    F. W. Cope,Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.,204 (1973) 416.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    A. G. Petrov,Proc. First Internat. Colloquium on Phys. and Chem. Information Transfer in Regulation of Reproduction and Ageing (Vazna, Bulgaria, 1974).Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    R. B. Meyer,Phys. Rev. Lett.,22 (1969) 918.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    A. Derzhanski and A. G. Petrov,Phys. Lett.,36A (1971) 483.ADSGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    A. I. Derzhanski and A. G. Petrov,Compt. Rend. de l'Acad. Bulgare des Sci.,25 (1972) 167.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    W. Helfrich,Z. Naturforsch.,26A (1971) 833.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    D. Schmidt, M. Schadt, and W. Helfrich,Z. Naturforsch.,27A (1972) 277.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    A. Derzhanski, A. G. Petrov, K. Khinov, and B. L. Markovski,Bulgarian J. Physics,1 (1974) 165.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    F. W. Cope,Bull. Math. Biol.,35 (1973) 31.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    J. P. Marton,Physiol. Chem. and Physics,5 (1973) 259.ADSGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    F. W. Cope, R. J. Sever, and B. D. Polis,Arch Biochem. Biophys.,100 (1963) 171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    R. H. Ruby, I. D. Kuntz and M. Calvin,Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA),51 (1964) 515.ADSGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    J. Tafel,Z. Phys. Chem.,50 (1905) 641.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    G. Kortüm and J. O. Bockris,Textbook of Electrochemistry (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1951).Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    J. O. Bockris, inModern Aspects of Electrochemistry (J. O. Bockris and B. E. Conway, eds.) (Butterworths, London, 1954).Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    D. R. Turner, inThe Electrochemistry of Semiconductors (P. J. Holmes, ed.) (Academic Press, London, 1962).Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    F. W. Cope,Bull. Math. Biophys.,33 (1971) 39.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    F. W. Cope,J. Chem. Phys.,40 (1964) 2653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    F. W. Cope,Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA),51 (1964) 809.ADSGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    F. W. Cope,Bull. Math. Biol.,37 (1975) in press.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    F. W. Cope,Bull. Math. Biophys.,33 (1971) 39.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    K. Minnaert,Biochim. Biophys. Acta,50 (1961) 23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    F. W. Cope,Bull. Math. Biophys.,27 (1965) 237.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Q. H. Gibson and D. C. Wharton, inStructure and Function of Cytochromes (K. Okunuki, M. D. Kamen, and I. Sekuzu, eds.) (University Park Press, Baltimore, 1968).Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    F. W. Cope,Bull. Math. Biophys.,33 (1971) 579.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    A. L. Hodgkin and A. F. Huxley,J. Physiol.,117 (1952) 500.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    N. Chalazonitis,Photochem. Photobiol.,3 (1964) 539.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    F. W. Cope,Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA),61 (1968) 905.ADSGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    A. Fraser and A. H. Frey,Biophys. J.,8 (1968) 731.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    W. M. Clark,Topics in Physical Chemistry (Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1952) page 102.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    F. W. Cope,Bull. Math. Biophys.,29 (1967) 583.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    C. C. Grimes, P. L. Richards and S. Shapiro,Phys. Rev. Lett.,8 (1966) 431.ADSGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    B. N. Taylor,J. Appl. Phys.,39 (1968) 2490.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    J. Clarke,Physics Today,24 (No. 8) (1971) 30.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    F. W. Cope,Biophys. J.,9 (1969) 303.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    C. F. Hazelwood, B. L. Nichols, and N. F. Chamberlain,Nature (London),222 (1969) 747.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    C. F. Hazelwood, D. C. Chang, B. L. Nichols, and D. E. Woessner,Biophys. J.,14 (1974) 583.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    F. W. Cope,J. Gen. Physiol.,50 (1967) 1353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    F. W. Cope,Biophys. J.,10 (1970) 843.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    R. Damadian and F. W. Cope,Physiol. Chem. and Physics,5 (1973) 511.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    F. W. Cope and R. Damadian,Physiol. Chem. and Physics,6 (1974) 17.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    R. Damadian and F. W. Cope,Physiol. Chem. and Physics,6 (1974) 309.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    F. W. Cope,Bull. Math. Biophys.,27 (1965) 99.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    F. W. Cope,Bull. Math. Biophys.,29 (1967) 691.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    G. N. Ling,Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.,125 (1965) 401.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    G. N. Ling,Physiol. Chem. and Physics,2 (1970) 15.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    R. Damadian,Science,171 (1971) 1151.ADSGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    R. Damadian, K. Zaner, D. Hor and T. DiMaio,Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA),71 (1974) 1471.ADSGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    G. N. Ling,Amer. J. Phys. Med.,34 (1955) 89.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    G. N. Ling,Int. Rev. Cytol.,26 (1969) 1.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    L. Minkoff and R. Damadian,Biophys. J.,13 (1973) 167.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    L. Minkoff and R. Damadian,Biophys. J.,14 (1974) 69.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    C. F. Hazelwood (ed.),Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.,204 (1973).Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    G. N. Ling,A Physical Theory of the Living State, (Blaisdell, New York, 1960).Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    R. Damadian,Biophys. J.,11 (1971) 773.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    R. Damadian,Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.,204 (1973) 211.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    S. Chai and P. Vogelhut,Rev. Sci. Inst.,37 (1966) 1620.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    A. Athenstaedt,Nature (London),228 (1970) 830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    S. B. Lang,Nature,212 (1966) 704.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    H. Athenstaedt,Z. Zellforsch.,91 (1968) 155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    H. Athenstaedt,Z. Zellforsch.,92 (1968) 428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    H. Athenstaedt,Z. Zellforsch.,93 (1969) 484.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    H. Athenstaedt,Z. Zellforsch.,97 (1969) 537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    H. Athenstaedt,Z. Anat. Entwickl. Gesch.,131 (1970) 1 and 21.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    H. Athenstaedt,Z. Zellforsch.,98 (1969) 300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    J. McGinness, P. Corry, and P. Proctor,Science,183 (1974) 835.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    F. W. Cope, R. J. Sever, and B. D. Polis,Arch. Biochem. Biophys.,100 (1963) 171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    G. Kemeny and B. Rosenberg,J. Chem. Phys.,53 (1970) 3549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    M. V. Volkenstein,J. Theoret. Biol.,34 (1972) 193.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    J. McGinness and P. Proctor,J. Theoret. Biol.,39 (1973) 677.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    P. Proctor, J. McGinness and P. Corry,J. Theoret. Biol.,48 (1974) 19.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    P. Corry, J. McGinness, and E. Armour, inProceedings of 9th International Pigment Conference, (1975) in press.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    J. McGinness, P. Corry and E. Armour, inProceedings of 9th International Pigment Conference, (1975) in press.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    G. Kemeny and I. Goklany,J. Theoret. Biol.,40 (1973) 107.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    T. A. Kaplan and S. D. Mahanti,J. Chem. Phys.,62 (1975) 100.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    M. K. Jain, A. Strickholm, F. P. White and E. H. Cordes,Nature (London),227 (1970) 705.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    H. T. Tien,Photochem. and Photobiol.,16 (1972) 271.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    L. Y. Wei and B. Y. Woo,Biophys. J.,13 (1973) 877.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    P. S. B. Digby,Proc. Roy. Soc.,B161 (1965) 504.ADSGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    P. S. B. Digby,Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond.,178 (1967) 129.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    P. S. B. Digby,Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond.,19 (1967) 159.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    E. J. Lund,J. Exp. Zool.,51 (1928) 265.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    E. J. Lund,J. Exp. Zool.,51 (1928) 327.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    E. J. Lund, J. N. Pratley and H. F. Rosene,Publ. Inst. Marine Sci. Univ. Texas,10 (1965) 221.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    T. L. Jahn,J. Theoret. Biol.,2 (1962) 129.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    A. A. Wolf and E. H. Halpern,Physiol. Chem. and Physics, (1975) in press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Physical Biological Sciences Ltd 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Freeman W. Cope
    • 1
  1. 1.Biochemistry LaboratoryU. S. Naval Air Development CenterWarminsterUSA

Personalised recommendations