Advertisement

Enhancing relevance: Embedded ARCS strategies vs. Purpose

  • Tammy Babe Means
  • David H. Jonassen
  • Francis M. Dwyer
Research

Abstract

The hypothesis of this study assumes that the cognitive effects of motivation result primarily from the relevance of what is being learned, that is, whether the ideas being studied are meaningful and whether they fulfill the goals of the learner. This study compared the effects of intrinsic relevance (material fulfilling a purpose or need of the learner) with embedded, extrinsic relevance-enhancing strategies based on the ARCS (attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction) Model of Instruction on perceived motivation and the learning outcomes of identification, terminology, comprehension, and drawing. Both intrinsic and extrinsic strategies enhanced the motivation of the college learners and their performance on identification, terminology, and comprehension questions following instruction. Embedded relevance-enhancing strategies resulted in greater motivation and performance gains than did intrinsic relevance.

Keywords

Educational Technology Performance Gain Cognitive Effect Comprehension Question Motivation Result 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ames, R., & Ames, C. (1989).Research on motivation in education: Goals and cognitions. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  2. Atkinson, J.W. (1964)An introduction to motivation. New York: D. Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  3. Brophy, J. (1987). Synthesis of research on strategies for motivating students to learn.Educational Leadership, 45, 40–48.Google Scholar
  4. Dweck, E., & Elliott, G. (1983). Achievement motivation. In P.H. Mussen (Ed.),Handbook of child psychology, 4 (pp. 643–691). New York: Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  5. Dwyer, F.M. (1978).Strategies for improving visual learning. State College, PA: Learning Services, Inc.Google Scholar
  6. Dwyer, F.M., & Lamberski, R. (1977).The human heart: Parts of the heart, circulation of blood and cycle of blood pressure. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  7. Feather, N.T. (1961). The relationship of persistence at a task to expectation of success and achievement related motives.Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63, 552–561.Google Scholar
  8. Flannigan, M., & Paulson, D. (1991). Teaching interpretive skills in instruction. In R.F. Dillon, & J.W. Pellegrino (Eds.),Instruction, theoretical and applied perspectives (pp.140–149).New York:Praeger.Google Scholar
  9. Ford, M.E. (1992).Motivating humans: Goals, emotions, and personal agency beliefs. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  10. Fyans, L.J., & Maehr, M.L. (1987).Sources of student achievement: Students' motivation, school context and family background. Unpublished paper.Google Scholar
  11. Fulford, C.P., & Zhang, S. (1993). Perceptions of interaction: The critical predictor in distance education.American Journal of Distance Education, 7(2), 8–21.Google Scholar
  12. Herndon, J.N. (1987). Learner interests, achievement, and continuing motivation in instruction.Journal of Instructional Development, 10(3), 11–14.Google Scholar
  13. Keller, J.M. (1983) Motivational design of instruction. In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.),Instructional design theories and models: An overview of their current status (pp.383–433).Hillsdale, NJ:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  14. Keller, J.M. (1987a). Development and use of the ARCS model of instructional design.Journal of Instructional Development, 10(3), 2–10.Google Scholar
  15. Keller, J.M. (1987b).Instructional materials motivation scale (IMMS). Unpublished manuscript. The Florida State University.Google Scholar
  16. Keller, J.M. (1987c). Strategies for stimulating the motivation to learn.Performance & Instruction, 26(8), 1–7.Google Scholar
  17. Keller, J.M. (1987d). The systematic process of motivational design.Performance & Instruction, 26(9), 1–8.Google Scholar
  18. Keller, J.M., & Kopp, T.W. (1987). Application of the ARCS model to motivational design. In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.),Instructional theories in action: Lessons illustrating selected theories (pp. 289–320). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  19. Keller, J.M., & Suzuki, K. (1988). Application of the ARCS model of courseware design. In D.H. Jonassen (Ed.),Instructional designs for microcomputer courseware (pp.401–434).New York:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  20. Klein, J.D. (1990).The effects of student ability, locus of control, and type of instructional control on motivation and performance. Doctoral dissertation, Florida State University.Google Scholar
  21. Klein, J.D., & Freitag, E.T. (1992). Training students to utilize self-motivational strategies.Educational Technology, 32(1), 44–48.Google Scholar
  22. Maehr, M.L. (1985). Meaning and motivation: Personal investment. In R. Ames, & C. Ames, (Eds.),Research on motivation in education: Student motivation (pp. 115–144). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  23. Mager, R.F., & Clark, C. (1963). Explorations in student-controlled instruction.Psychological Reports, 13, 71–76.Google Scholar
  24. McGraw, K. & Fiala, J. (1982). Undermining the Zeigarnik effect: Another hidden cost of reward.Journal of Personality, 50, 58–66.Google Scholar
  25. McKeachie, W.J., Pintrich, P.R., & Lin, Y. (1985). Teaching learning strategies.Educational Psychologist, 20, 153–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Moller, L. (1993).Increasing learner motivation and achievement through confidence building strategies. Doctoral dissertation, Purdue University.Google Scholar
  27. Myers, J.L., Hansen, R.S., Robson, R.C., & McCann, J. (1983). The role of explanation in learning elementary probability.Journal of Educational Psychology, 75, 374–389.Google Scholar
  28. Naime-Diefenbach, B. (1991).Validation of attention and confidence as independent components of the ARCS motivational model. Doctoral dissertation, Florida State University.Google Scholar
  29. Newby, T.J. (1991). Classroom motivation: Strategies of first-year teachers.Journal of Educational Psychology, 83(2), 195–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Oxford, R., Park-Oh, Y., Ito, S., & Sumrall, M. (1993). Factors affecting achievement in a satellite-delivered Japanese language program.The American Journal of Distance Education, 7(1), 11–25.Google Scholar
  31. Pintrich, P.R. (1989). A process-oriented view of student motivation and cognition. In J. Stark, & L. Mets (Eds.),Improving teaching and learning through research: New directions for institutional research, 57 (pp. 65–79). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  32. Pokay, P., & Blumenfeld, P.C. (1990). Predicting achievement early and late in the semester: The role of motivation and use of learning strategies.Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(1), 41–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Price, C.B. (1989).The influence of textual display in printed instruction on attention and performance. Doctoral dissertation, Florida State University.Google Scholar
  34. Ross, S.M., McCormick, D., & Krisk, N. (1986). Adapting the thematic context of mathematical problems to student interests: Individual versus group-based strategies.Journal of Educational Research, 79, 245–252.Google Scholar
  35. Ross, S.M., Morrison, G.R., & O'Dell, J.K. (1989). Uses and effects of learner control of context and instructional support in computer-based instruction.Educational Technology Research and Development, 37(4), 29–39.Google Scholar
  36. Schunk, D.J. (1989). Self-efficacy and cognitive skill learning. In R. Ames, & C. Ames (Eds.),Research on motivation in education: Goals and cognitions (pp. 13–44). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  37. Tilar, A., & Rossett, A. (1993). Creating motivating job aids.Performance & Instruction, 32, 13–20.Google Scholar
  38. Viechnicki, K.J., Bohlin, R.M., & Milheim, W.D. (1990). Instructional motivation of adult learners: Analysis of student perceptions in continuing education.The Journal of Continuing Higher Education, 38(3), 10–14.Google Scholar
  39. Visser, J., & Keller, J. (1990). The clinical use of motivational messages: An inquiry into the validity of the ARCS model of motivational design.Instructional Science, 19, 467–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Walbery, T. (1981). A psychological theory of educational productivity. In F.H. Farley & N. Gordon (Eds.),Psychology and education. Berkeley, CA: McCutchan.Google Scholar
  41. Walbery, T. (1984). Improving the productivity of American schools.Educational Leadership, 41, 19–30.Google Scholar
  42. Weiner, B. (1986).An attributional theory of motivation and emotion. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Association for Educational Communications and Technology 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tammy Babe Means
    • 1
  • David H. Jonassen
    • 2
  • Francis M. Dwyer
  1. 1.the Pennsylvania State UniversityUSA
  2. 2.the Pennsylvania State UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations