Atlantic Economic Journal

, Volume 31, Issue 3, pp 255–265

Budget deficits and real interest rates: Updated empirical evidence on causality

  • Richard Cebula
Articles

Abstract

Using error-correction model (ECM) estimation, the paper empirically examines the causality relationship between the federal government budget deficit and the ex ante real interest rate yield on high grade long term tax free municipal bonds in the U.S. To clarify this deficit or interest rate relationship, the budget deficit is measured by the primary budget deficit, which excludes net interest payments by the Treasury. In a model that includes federal personal income tax rates and net international capital flows, as well as money supply growth, the ECM estimates strongly suggest a bi-directional relationship between the primary budget deficit and the ex ante real interest rate yield. Budget deficits apparently do matter! William Simon's concerns were justified.

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Copyright information

© International Atlantic Economic Society 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard Cebula
    • 1
  1. 1.Armstrong Atlantic State UniversityU.S.A.

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