Environmental Biology of Fishes

, Volume 30, Issue 1–2, pp 253–271 | Cite as

Reproductive styles and life history variables relative to exploitation and management ofSebastes stocks

  • Bruce M. Leaman
Mariculture and Fisheries


The characteristics of lightly and heavily exploited Pacific ocean perch,Sebastes alutus, stocks are evaluated relative to the predictions of life history theory. These long-lived species (50–100 year lifespan) show limited phenotypic plasticity and have little buffering against the effects of reduced lifespan. Reduced stock abundance has generated some compensatory increase in growth rate. Length at first maturity varies only slightly with increased growth rate, although age at maturity may decrease by 1–4 years. Grooth increases yield larger (15–20%) size at age and increased reproductive effort at younger ages, but lower size-specific fecundity for these faster-growing fish. This suggests an energy allocation protocol favouring growth over reproduction in these long-lived animals. Rockfishes have late recruitment to fisheries (ages 10–15), and the detection time for results of management actions is equally long. Their vulnerability to overfishing means that indices of population changes, more representative of fishing effects than the catch rate index presently used, are required. Reproductive value indices are shown to be extremely sensitive and continuous with population abundance changes. Their incorporation into monitoring programs would permit more timely evaluation of management actions. Management policies developed for shorter-lived species are shown to be inappropriate for rockfishes. The need for an improved match in the time frame of the species' life history, and that of management strategies, is stressed.

Key words

Rockfish Longevity Reproductive value Fisheries Scorpaenidae 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References cited

  1. Archibald, C.P., D.A. Fournier & B.M. Leaman. 1983. Reconstruction of stock history and development of rehabilitation strategies for Pacific ocean perch in Queen Charlotte Sound, Canada. N. Amer. J. Fish. Manage. 3: 283–294.Google Scholar
  2. Archibald, C.P., W. Shaw & B.M. Leaman. 1981. Growth and mortality estimates of rockfishes (Scorpaenidae) from B.C. coastal waters, 1977–1979. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 1948. 57 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Balon, E.K. 1975. Reproductive guilds of fishes: a proposal and definition. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 32: 821–864.Google Scholar
  4. Balon, E.K. 1981. About processes which cause the evolution of guids and species. Env. Biol. Fish. 6: 129–138.Google Scholar
  5. Beverton, R.J.H. 1986. Longevity in fish: some ecological considerations. Basic Life Sci. 42: 161–185.Google Scholar
  6. Boehlert, G.W. & M.M. Yoklavich. 1984. Carbon assimilation as a function of ingestion rate in larval Pacific herring,Clupea harengus pallasi. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 79: 251–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Borisov, V.M. 1978. The selective effect of fishing on the population structure of species with a long life cycle. J. Ichthyol. 18: 896–904.Google Scholar
  8. Charlesworth, B. 1972. Selection in populations with overlapping generations. III. Conditions for genetic equilibrium. Theor. Popul. Biol. 3: 377–395.Google Scholar
  9. Charlesworth, B. 1980. Evolution in age-structured populations. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 300 pp.Google Scholar
  10. Charlesworth, B. & J.A. Leon 1976. The relation of reproductive effort to age. Amer. Nat. 110: 449–459.Google Scholar
  11. Clarke, A. 1987. Temperature, latitude and reproductive effort. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 38: 88–99.Google Scholar
  12. Crow, J.F. & M. Kimura. 1970. An introduction to population genetics theory. Harper and Row, New York. 591 pp.Google Scholar
  13. den Boer, P.J. 1968. Spreading of risk and stabilization of animal numbers. Acta Biotheoretica 18: 165–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Emlen, J.M. 1970. Age specificity and ecological theory. Ecology 51: 588–601.Google Scholar
  15. Fisher, R.A. 1930. The genetical theory of natural selection. Clarendon Press, Oxford. 272 pp.Google Scholar
  16. Gadgil, M. & W.H. Bossert. 1970. Life history consequences of natural selection. Amer. Nat. 102: 52–64.Google Scholar
  17. Garrod, D.J. & J.W. Horwood. 1984. Reproductive strategies and the response to exploitation. pp. 367–384.In: G.W. Potts & R.J. Wootton (ed.) Fish Reproduction: Strategies and Tactics, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  18. Giesel, J.T. 1976. Reproductive strategies as adaptations to life in temporally heterogeneous environments. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 7: 57–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Goodman, D. 1982. Optimal life histories, optimal notation, and the value of reproductive value. Amer. Nat. 119: 803–823.Google Scholar
  20. Goodman, L.A. 1967. On the reconciliation of mathematical theories of population growth. J. Roy. Stat. Soc. 130: 541–543Google Scholar
  21. Gunderson, D.R. 1977. Population biology of Pacific ocean perch,Sebastes alutus, stocks in the Washington-Queen Charlotte Sound region, and their response to fishing. U.S. Fish. Bull. 75: 369–403.Google Scholar
  22. Hightower, J.E. & G.D. Grossman. 1987. Optimal policies for rehabilitation of overexploited fish stocks using a deterministic model. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 44: 803–810.Google Scholar
  23. Ito, D.H. 1987. Comparing abundance and productivity estimates of Pacific ocean perch in wates off the United States. pp. 287–298.In: Proceedings of the International Rockfish Symposium, Anchorage, University of Alaska Sea Grant Rep. 87-2.Google Scholar
  24. Leaman, B.M. 1987. Incorporating reproductive value into Pacific ocean perch management. pp. 355–368.In: Proceedings of the International Rockfish Symposium, Anchorage, University of Alaska Sea Grant Rep. 87-2.Google Scholar
  25. Leaman, B.M. 1988. Reproductive and population biology of Pacific ocean perch (Sebastes alutus (Gilbert.) Ph.D. Thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. 200 pp.Google Scholar
  26. Leaman, B.M. & R.J. Beamish. 1984. Ecological and management implications of longevity in some Northeast Pacific groundfishes. Int. North Pac. Fish. Comm. Bull. 42: 85–97.Google Scholar
  27. Loftus, K.H. 1987. Inadequate science transfer: an issue basic to effective fisheries management. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 116: 314–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mann, R.H.K., C.A. Mills & D.T. Crisp. 1984. Geographical variation in the life-history tactics of some species of freshwater fish. pp. 171–186.In: G.W. Potts & R.J. Wootton (ed.) Fish Reproduction: Strategies and Tactics, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  29. Oosthuizen, E. & N. Daan. 1974. Egg fecundity and maturity of North Sea cod,Gadus morhua. Nath. J. Sea Res. 8: 378–397.Google Scholar
  30. Pikitch, E.K., D.L. Erickson & J.R. Wallace. 1988. An evaluation of the effectiveness of trip limits as a management tool. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Center Processed Report 88-27. 33 pp.Google Scholar
  31. Pinhorn, A.T. 1969. Fishery and biology of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) off the southwest coast of Newfoundland. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 26: 3133–3164.Google Scholar
  32. Pitt, T.K. 1975. Changes in abundance and certain biological characteristics of Grand Bank American plaice (Hippoglosus platessoides). J. Fish Res. Board Can. 32: 1383–1398.Google Scholar
  33. Reznick, D. 1985. Costs of reproduction: an evaluation of the empirical evidence. Oikos 44: 257–267.Google Scholar
  34. Ricker, W.E. 1969. Effects of size-selective mortality and sampling bias on estimates of growth, mortality, production, and yield. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 26: 479–541.Google Scholar
  35. Ricklefs, R.E. 1981. Fitness, reproductive value, age structure and optimization of life-history patterns. Amer. Nat. 117: 819–825.Google Scholar
  36. Schaffer, W.M. 1979. Equivalence of maximizing reproductive value and fitness in the case of reproductive strategies. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76: 3567–3569.Google Scholar
  37. Schultz, D.L. 1989. The evolution of phenotypic variance with iteroparity. Evolution 43: 473–475.Google Scholar
  38. Sheldon, R.W., W.H. Sutcliffe Jr. & M.A. Paranjape. 1977. Structure of pelagic food chain and relationship between plankton, and fish production. J. Fish Res. Board Can. 34: 2344–2353.Google Scholar
  39. Silvertown, J.W. 1981. Seed size, life span and germination date as coadapted features of plant life histories. Amer. Nat. 118: 860–864.Google Scholar
  40. Sokal, R.R. 1970. Senescence and genetic load: evidence fromTribolium. Science 167: 1733–1734.Google Scholar
  41. Stanley, R.D. 1987. A comparison of age estimates derived from the surface and cross-section methods of otolith reading for Pacific ocean perch (Sebastes alutus). pp. 187–196.In: Proceedings of the International Rockfish Symposium, Anchorage, University of Alaska Sea Grant Rep. 87-2.Google Scholar
  42. Stearns, S.C. 1976. Life history tactics: a review of ideas. Q. Rev. Biol. 51: 3–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Stearns, S.C. 1977. The evolution of life history traits: a critique of theory and a review of the data. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 8: 145–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Stearns, S.C. 1980. A new view of life history evolution. Oikos 35: 266–281.Google Scholar
  45. Stearns, S.C. & R.E. Crandall. 1984. Plasticity for age and size at sexual maturity: a life history response to unavoidable stress. pp. 13–33.In: G.W. Potts & R.J. Wootton (ed.) Fish Reproduction: Strategies and Tactics, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  46. Stearns, S.C. & J.C. Koella. 1986. The evolution of phenotypic plasticity in life history traits: predictions of reaction norms for age and size at maturity. Evolution 40: 893–913.Google Scholar
  47. Stocker, M. & B.M. Leaman. 1989. Effects of extended jurisdiction on conservation of Canada's Pacific coast fisheries. N. Amer. J. Fish. Manage (in press).Google Scholar
  48. Summerfelt, R.C. & G.E. Hall (ed.). 1987. Age and growth of fish. Iowa State University Press, Ames. 544 pp.Google Scholar
  49. Theilacker, G.H. 1987. Feeding ecology and growth energetics of larval northern anchovy,Engraulis mordax. U.S. Fish. Bull. 85: 213–228.Google Scholar
  50. Tuomi, J., T. Hakala & E. Haukioja. 1983. Alternative concepts of reproductive efforts, costs of reproduction, and selection in life history evolution. Amer. Zool. 23: 25–34.Google Scholar
  51. Walters, C.J. & J.S. Collie. 1989. An experimental strategy for groundfish management in the face of large uncertainty about stock size and production. Can. Spec. Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci. (in press_.Google Scholar
  52. Ware, D.M. 1984. Fitness of different reproductive strategies in teleosts. pp. 349–366.In: G.W. Potts & R.J. Wootton (ed.) Fish Reproduction: Strategies and Tactics, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  53. Williams, G.C. 1966. Natural selection, the costs of reproduction and a refinement of Lack's principle. Amer. Nat. 100: 687–690.Google Scholar
  54. yarbrough, C.J. 1987. Using political theory in fishery management. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 116: 532–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bruce M. Leaman
    • 1
  1. 1.Biological Sciences Branch, Pacific Biological StationFisheries & Oceans CanadaNanaimoCanada

Personalised recommendations