, Volume 61, Issue 4, pp 559–599 | Cite as

Gleaning in the field of dual scaling

  • Shizuhiko NishisatoEmail author


Some historical background and preliminary technical information are first presented, and then a number of hidden, but important, methodological aspects of dual scaling are illustrated and discussed: normed versus projected weights, the amount of information accounted for by each solution, a perfect solution to the problem of multidimensional unfolding, multidimensional quantification space, graphical display, number-of-option problems, option standardization versus item standardization, and asymmetry of symmetric (dual) scaling. Contrary to the common perception that dual scaling and similar quantification methods are now mathematically transparent, the present study demonstrates how much more needs to be clarified for routine use of the method to arrive at valid conclusions. Data analysis must be carried out in such a way that common sense, intuition and sound logic will prevail.

Key words

singular value decomposition of categorical data incidence data versus dominance data two objectives of dual scaling information contained and explained multidimensional unfolding graphical display multidimensional space missing responses 


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© The Psychometric Society 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.OISE/University of TorontoTorontoCanada

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