, Volume 43, Issue 3–4, pp 215–219 | Cite as

Analysis of terpenoic composition of conifer needle oils by steam distillation/extraction, gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

  • A. Orav
  • T. Kailas
  • M. Liiv
Short Communications


The essential oils of Estonian spruce and pine needles have been analysed by a combination of steam distillation/extraction, GC and GC-MS. According to their monoterpene composition Estonian pines belong to a high carene chemotype with monoterpenes representing up to 85% of total oil. Estonian spruce needle oil contains up to 70% of oxygenated terpenes and more limonene and 1,8-cineole than the same spruce species [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] from other localities.

A total of 60 components were identified. Coefficients of variation describe the range of component contents in individual trees within the population.

Key Words

Pinus silvestris Picea abies Needle oils SDE, HRGC, GC-MS Terpenoic composition Retention indices 


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Copyright information

© Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Orav
    • 1
  • T. Kailas
    • 1
  • M. Liiv
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of ChemistryTallinnEstonia

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