, Volume 69, Issue 4, pp 655–660

Positive loadings and factor correlations from positive covariance matrices

Note And Comments


In many instances it is reasonable to assume that the population covariance matrix has positive elements. This assumption implies for the single factor analysis model that the loadings and regression weights for best linear factor prediction are positive. For the multiple factor analysis model where each variable loads on a single factor and a hierarchical factor model, it implies that the loadings and the factor correlations are positive. For the latter model it also implies that the regression weights for first- and second-order factor prediction are positive.

Key words

Classical test theory congeneric tests structural equation models hierarchical factor analysis regression weights best linear factor prediction 


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Copyright information

© The Psychometric Society 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychological MethodsUniversity of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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