, Volume 10, Issue 4, pp 255–282

A basis for analyzing test-retest reliability

  • Louis Guttman

DOI: 10.1007/BF02288892

Cite this article as:
Guttman, L. Psychometrika (1945) 10: 255. doi:10.1007/BF02288892


Three sources of variation in experimental results for a test are distinguished: trials, persons, and items. Unreliability is defined only in terms of variation over trials. This definition leads to a more complete analysis than does the conventional one; Spearman's contention is verified that the conventional approach—which was formulated by Yule—introduces unnecessary hypotheses. It is emphasized that at least two trials are necessary to estimate the reliability coefficient. This paper is devoted largely to developinglower bounds to the reliability coefficient that can be computed from but asingle trial; these avoid the experimental difficulties of making two independent trials. Six different lower bounds are established, appropriate for different situations. Some of the bounds are easier to compute than are conventional formulas, and all the bounds assume less than do conventional formulas. The terminology used is that of psychological and sociological testing, but the discussion actually provides a general analysis of the reliability of the sum ofn variables.

Copyright information

© Psychometric Society 1945

Authors and Affiliations

  • Louis Guttman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Sociology and AnthropologyCornell UniversityUSA

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