Clinical Autonomic Research

, Volume 6, Issue 3, pp 157–161 | Cite as

Estimation of baroreflex sensitivity using transfer function analysis: normal values and theoretical considerations

  • D. Linden
  • R. R. Diehl
Research Paper

Abstract

Human baroreflex sensitivity is traditionally derived from changes in heart rate due to alterations of the baroreceptor input (pharmacologically or physically induced blood pressure changes). Transfer function analysis (TFA) of changes in heart rate (output function) and physiological blood pressure oscillations (input function) at approximately 0.1 Hz (Mayer waves) has already been accepted as a measure of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Transfer function analysis provides gain and phase shift values for each frequency band and body position. We performed TFA in 50 normal subjects in the supine and tilted positions, at mid-frequency (0.05–0.15 Hz) and high-frequency (0.15–0.33 Hz) bands, recording heart rate and blood pressure continuously with a Finapres device. Gain values were in accordance with previous studies. Phase shifts lay within a narrow range for all frequency bands and positions. High correlations were found between phase shifts of the same frequency band, but not for those of the same position. This supports the idea that the transfer mechanisms for the two frequency bands may, in part, be different. There was a poor correlation between gain and phase values on the one hand and, on the other hand, further spectral measures and the results of standard autonomic tests. This suggests that TFA may not only be a measure of BRS, but also a complementary tool for evaluation of autonomic function.

Keywords

baroreflex sensitivity power spectral analysis transfer function analysis autonomic nervous system heart rate blood pressure 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Robertson D, Hollister AS, Biaggioni I, Netterville JL, Mosqueda-Garcia R, Robertson RM. The diagnosis and treatment of baroreflex failure.N Engl J Med 1993;329: 1449–1455.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shepherd RFJ, Shepherd JT. Control of blood pressure and the circulation in man. In: Bannister R, Mathias CJ, eds.Autonomic Failure. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992; 78–93.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Spyer KM. The central nervous organisation of reflex circulatory control. In: Loewy AD, Spyer KM, eds.Central Regulation of Autonomic Functions. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990; 168–188.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Biaggioni I, Whetsell WO, Jobe J, Nadeau JH. Baroreflex failure in a patient with central nervous system lesions involving the nucleus tractus solitarii.Hypertension 1994;23: 491–495.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Eckberg DL, Sleight P.Human Baroreflexes in Health and Disease. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pagani M, Somers V, Furlan R, et al. Changes in autonomic regulation induced by physical training in mild hypertension.Hypertension 1988:12: 600–610.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    DeBoer RW, Karemaker JM, Strackee J. Hemodynamic fluctuations and baroreflex sensitivity in humans: a beat-to-beat model.Am J Physiol 1987;253(22): 680–689.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Karemaker JM. Analysis of blood pressure and heart rate variability: theoretical considerations and clinical applicability. In: Low PA, ed.Clinical Autonomic Disorders. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1992; 315–329.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Saul JP, Berger RD, Albrecht P, Stein SP, Chen MH, Cohen RJ. Transfer function analysis of the circulation: unique insights into cardiovascular regulation.Am J Physiol 1991;261: H1231–1245.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Robbe HWJ, Mulder MJL, Rüddel H, Langewitz WA, Veldman JBP, Mulder G. Assessment of baroreceptor reflex sensitivity by means of spectral analysis.Hypertension 1987;10: 538–543.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Veerman DP, Imholz BP, Wieling W, Karemaker JM, van Montfrans GA. Effects of aging on blood pressure variability in resting conditions.Hypertension 1994;24: 120–130.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Norussis MJ.SPSS/PC Manual. Chicago: SPSS Inc, 1988.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Preiss G, Polosa C. Patterns of sympathetic neuron activity associated with Mayer waves.Am J Physiol 1974;226: 724–730.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Polosa C. Central nervous system origin of some types of Mayer waves. In: Miyakawa K, Koepchen HP, Polosa C, eds.Mechanisms of Blood Pressure Waves. Berlin: Springer, 1984: 277–292.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Inoue K, Miyake S, Kumashiro M, Ogata H, Ueta T, Akatsu T. Power spectral analysis of blood pressure variability in traumatic quadriplegic patients.Am J Physiol 1991;260: H842-H847.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Koh J, Brown TE, Beightol LA, Ha CY, Eckberg DL. Human autonomic rhythms: vagal cardiac mechanisms in tetraplegic subjects.Physiol 1994;474(3): 483–495.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pomeranz B, Macaulay RJB, Caudill MA, et al. Assessment of autonomic function in humans by heart rate spectral analysis.Am J Physiol 1985;248(17): H151-H153.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Blaber AP, Yamamoto Y, Hughson RL. Change in phase relation-ship between SBP and RR-interval during lower body negative pressure.Am J Physiol 1995;37: H1688–1693.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Van den Aardweg JG, Karemakr JM. Respiratory variability and associated cardiovascular changes in adults at rest.Clin Physiol 1991;11: 95–118.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Taha BH, Simon PM, Dempsey JA, Skatrud JB, Iber C. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia in humans: an obligatory role for vagal feedback from the lungs.J Appl Physiol 1995;78: 638–645.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Parati G, Omboni S, Frattola A, Di Rienzo M, Zanchetti A, Mancia G. Dynamic evaluation of the baroreflex in ambulant subjects. In Di Rienzo M, et al., eds.Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability. Amsterdam: IOS Press, 1992; 123–137.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Abdel-Rahman ARA, Merill RH, Wooles WR. Gender-related differences in the baroreflex control of heart rate in normotensive humans.J Appl Physiol 1994;77: 606–613.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    DeBoer RW, Karemaker JM, Strackee J. Comparing spectra of a series of point events particularly for heart rate variability data.IEEE Trans Biom Eng 1984;31: 384–387.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Parati G, Mutti E, Frattola A, Castiglioni P, di Rienzo M, Mancia G. β-adrenergic blocking treatment and 24-hour baroreflex sensitivity in essential hypertensive patients.Hypertension 1994;23: 992–996.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Diehl RR, Diehl B, Sitzer M, Hennerici M. Spontaneous oscillations in cerebral blood flow velocity in normal humans and in patients with carotid artery disease.Neurosci Lett 1991;127: 5–8.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Varju D.Systemtheorie. Berlin: Springer, 1977; 53–65.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Rapid Science Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Linden
    • 1
  • R. R. Diehl
    • 1
  1. 1.Autonomic Laboratory, Department of Neurology and Clinical NeurophysiologyAlfried Krupp HospitalEssenGermany

Personalised recommendations