Plant and Soil

, Volume 90, Issue 1–3, pp 35–46 | Cite as

Establishment of inoculatedAzospirillum spp. in the rhizosphere and in roots of field grown wheat and sorghum

  • V. L. D. Baldani
  • M. A. de B. Alvarez
  • J. I. Baldani
  • J. Döbereiner
Biology of Interactions between Plants and Diazotrophic Bacteria

Summary

Four field experiments were carried out with wheat or sorghum in different regions of Brazil. The aim was to study the establishment of inoculatedAzospirillum strains, marked with resistance to various antibiotics, in the rhizosphere and in roots. The levels of the various antibiotics were chosen according to the resistance of the indigenousAzospirillum population.Azospirillum brasilense strains Sp 107 and Sp 245 could be established in all three wheat experiments and predominated within theAzospirillum population in washed, and especially in surface sterilized, roots. Strains Sp 7 and Cd established poorly in wheat roots.Azospirillum lipoferum Sp S82 represented 72% of the root isolates from sorghum inoculated with this strain. This strain and naturalAzospirillum infection became concentrated in the upper parts of the root system. Improved methods for root surface sterilization in which the absence ofAzospirillum on the root surface was established by pre-incubating roots with paraffin-capped ends in NFb medium confirmed the establishment of inoculatedAzospirillum strains within sorghum roots in the field.

Key words

Azospirillum Establishment in roots Inoculation N2 fixation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Albrecht S L, Gaskins M H, Milam J R, Schank S C and Smith R L 1983 Ecological factors affecting survival and activity ofAzospirillum in the rhizosphere.In Experientia Supplementum, vol. 48 Ed. W. Klingmüller.Azospirillum II. Birkhäuser Verlag Basel, pp 138–148.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baldani J I 1984 Ocorrência e caracterizacao deAzospirillum amazonense em comparação com as outras espécies deste gênero em raizes de milho, sorgo e arroz. MSc. Thesis, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baldani V L D, Baldani J I and Döbereiner J 1983 Effects ofAzospirillum inoculation on root infection and nitrogen incorporation in wheat. Can. J. Microbiol. 29, 924–929.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baldani V L and Döbereiner J 1980 Host-plant specificity in the infection of cereals withAzospirillum spp. Soil Biol. Biochem. 12, 433–439.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Boddey R M, Baldani V L and Döbereiner J 1984 The effect of inoculation ofAzospirillum spp on wheat grown in soil amended with15N labelled fertilizer. Poster presented at “3rd Intern. Symp. Nitrogen Fixation with Non-Legumes” Helsinki, Finland. September 2–8.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Date R A 1971 Nitrogen, a major limitation in the productivity of natural communities, crops and pastures in the Pacific area. Soil Biol. Biochem. 5, 5–18.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Döbereiner J 1970 Further research onAzotobacter paspali and its variety specific occurrence in the rhizosphere ofPaspalum notatum Flügge. Zbl. Bakt. Abt. II Bd. 124, 224–230.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Döbereiner J 1980 Forage grasses and grain crops.In Methods for Evaluating Biological Nitrogen Fixation. Ed. F J Bergersen. John Wiley and Sons, Ltd. Chichester, pp 535–555.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Döbereiner J 1983 Ten yearsAzospirillum.In Experientia Supplementum, vol. 48 Ed. W KlingmüllerAzospirillum II. Birkhäuser Verlag Basel, pp 9–23.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Döbereiner J and Baldani J I 1982 Bases cientificas para uma agricultura biologica. Ci. Cul., 34, 869–881.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Döbereiner J and Day J M 1976 Associative symbiosis in tropical grasses: characterization of microorganisms and dinitrogen fixing sites.In Proceedings of the 1st Intern. Symp. on N2 Fixation. Eds W E Newton and C J Nyman, Washington State University Press, Pullman, 2, pp 518–538.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Eskew D L, Focht D D and Ting I P 1977 Nitrogen fixation, denitrification and pleomorphic growth in a highly pigmentedSpirillum lipoferum. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 34, 582–585.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Freitas J L M de, Rocha R E M da, Pereira P A A and Döbereiner J 1982 Materia orgânica e inoculação comAzospirillum na incorporação de N pelo milho. Pesq. agropec. bras. 17, 1423–1432.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hegazi N A 1983 Contribution ofAzospirillum spp to asymbiotic N2-fixation in soils and on roots of plants grown in Egypt.In Experientia Supplementum, vol. 48 Ed. W Klingmüller,Azospirillum II. Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel, pp. 171–189.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Holl G B 1983 Plant genetics: manipulation of the host. Can. J. Microbiol. 29, 945–953.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hurek T, Reinhold B and Fendrik I 1984 Adsorption of N2-fixing microorganisms to roots ofLeptochloa fusca. Poster presented at “3rd Intern. Symp. Nitrogen Fixation with Non-Legumes” Helsinki, Finland. September 2–8.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kapulnik Y and Okon Y 1983 Benefits ofAzospirillum inoculation on wheat: Effects on root development, mineral uptake, nitrogen fixation and crop yield.In Experientia Supplementum, vol. 48 Ed. W Klingmüller,Azospirillum II. Birkhäuser Verlag Basel, pp. 163–170.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Magalhaes F M M, Baldani J I, Souto S M, Kuykendal J R and Döbereiner J 1983 A new acid tolerantAzospirillum species. An. Acad. Bras. Cien. 55, 417–430.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mandimba G, Heulin T, Bally R and Balandreau J 1984 Chemotaxis of free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria towards maize mucilage. Poster presented at “3rd Intern. Symp. Nitrogen Fixation with Non-Legumes”, Helsinki, Finland. September 2–8.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Okon Y 1982Azospirillum: Physiological properties, mode of association with roots and its application for the benefit of cereal and forage grass crops. Isr. J. Bot. 31, 214–220.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Patriquin D G and Döbereiner J 1978 Light microscopy observations of tetrazolium-reducing bacteria in the endorhizosphere of maize and other grasses in Brazil. Can. J. Microbiol. 24, 734–742.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Patriquin D G, Döbereiner J and Jain D K 1983 Sites and processes of association between diazotrophs and grasses. Can. J. Microbiol. 29, 900–915.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Reinhold B, Hurek T and Fendrik I 1984 Strain specific chemotaxis ofAzospirilla. Poster presented at “3rd Intern. Symp. Nitrogen Fixation with Non-Legumes”, Helsinki, Finland. September 2–8.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rennie R J and Larson R I 1979 Dinitrogen fixation associated with chromosome substitution lines of spring wheat. Can. J. Bot. 47, 2771–2775.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Reynders L and Vlassak K 1982 Use ofAzospirillum brasilense as biofertilizer in intensive wheat cropping. Plant and Soil 66, 217–223.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rocha R E M da, Baldani J I and Döbereiner J 1981 Specificity of infection byAzospirillum spp. in plants with C4 photosynthetic pathway.In Associative N2 Fixation. Eds P B Vose and A P Ruschel. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Florida, 2, pp. 137–144.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sarig S, Kapulnik Y, Nur I and Okon Y 1984 Response of non-irrigatedSorghum bicolor andAzospirillum inoculation. Expl. Agric. 20, 59–66.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Smith R L, Schank S C, Milam J R and Baltensperger A A 1984 Responses ofSorghum andPennisetum species to the N2-fixing bacteriumAzospirillum brasilense. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 37, 1331–1336.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Subba Rao N S 1981 Response of crops toAzospirillum inoculation in India.In Associative N2 Fixation. Eds P B Vose and A P Ruschel. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Florida, 1, pp. 137–144.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Vidor C 1981 Symbiotic dinitrogen fixation.In The Soil/Root System in Relation to Brazilian Agriculture. Eds R S Russell, K. Igue and Y R Mehta. Fundação Instituto Agronômico do Paraná, Londrina, Parana, Brazil, pp 199–222.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Vose P B and Ruschel A P 1981 Discussion on terminology.In Associative N2 Fixation. Eds P B Vose and A P Ruschel. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Florida, 1, p. 241.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wilson C L 1977 Management of beneficial plant diseases.In Plant Disease. Eds J G Horsfall and E B Cowling. Academic Press, New York, 1, pp 347–362.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishers 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. L. D. Baldani
    • 1
  • M. A. de B. Alvarez
    • 1
  • J. I. Baldani
    • 1
  • J. Döbereiner
    • 1
  1. 1.EMBRAPA-Programa Nacional de Pesquisa em Biologia do SoloRio de JaneiroBrazil

Personalised recommendations