Cognitive profile of Alzheimer patients with extrapyramidal signs: A longitudinal study

  • H. Soininen
  • E. -L. Helkala
  • V. Laulumaa
  • R. Soikkeli
  • P. Hartikainen
  • P. J. Riekkinen
Full Papers


The cognitive profile of Alzheimer patients without (AD E-, n=17) and with (AD, E+, n=15) extrapyramidal signs (rigidity or bradykinesia), at the time of diagnosis, was examined in a 3-year follow-up study and compared to cognitive performance of demented (PD D+, n=18) and nondemented (PD D-, n=17) patients with Parkinson's disease and normal elderly controls (n=19). Although the AD E+ and AD E- groups did not differ significantly at the initial testing, the AD E+ patients showed greater deterioration on visual, praxic and expressive speech functions as well as in category memory. The cognitive profile of the AD E+ patients was similar to that of the PD D+ patients except that the AD E+ patients recognized more false positive targets on list-learning task. The AD E- patients had better preserved praxic functions and WAIS Performance IQ but they, like AD E+ patients, recognized more false positive targets on list-learning than the PD D+ patients did. The results suggest that AD patients with extrapyramidal signs, even if mild, at the time of diagnosis may have greater progression of cognitive impairment, especially on cortical functions, which may explain earlier need for institutional care observed in previous studies as compared to patients without these signs.


Alzheimer's disease cognition dementia memory Parkinson's disease 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Soininen
    • 1
  • E. -L. Helkala
    • 1
  • V. Laulumaa
    • 1
  • R. Soikkeli
    • 1
  • P. Hartikainen
    • 1
  • P. J. Riekkinen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyUniversity of KuopioKuopioFinland

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