Advertisement

Motivation and Emotion

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 1–24 | Cite as

Social skills deficits among the socially anxious: Rejection from others and loneliness

  • Chris Segrin
  • Terry Kinney
Article

Abstract

Based on evidence linking social anxiety with social skills deficits, it was hypothesized that socially anxious individuals would exhibit diminished social skills in a naturalistic interaction, relative to socially nonanxious persons, and that they would also elicit rejection from their conversational partners and experience loneliness. Socially anxious and nonanxious persons were surreptitiously videotaped while they waited with partners for an experiment to begin. Analyses of subjects' social skills indicated that, behaviorally, the socially anxious appear very similar to their nonanxious peers. At the same time, however, they exhibited a tendency to negatively misperceive their own social skills. Although socially anxious persons did not elicit significantly more rejection from their conversational partners, they did report being more lonely than nonanxious persons. Socially anxious subjects were also rated by their conversational partners as lower in social skill than were nonanxious subjects. Implications for further study of social skills among the socially anxious are discussed.

Keywords

Social Psychology Social Skill Social Anxiety Naturalistic Interaction Skill Deficit 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alden, L. E., & Phillips, N. (1990). An interpersonal analysis of social anxiety and depression.Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14, 499–513.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, C. A., & Harvey, R. J. (1988). Discriminating between problems in living: An examination of measures of depression, loneliness, shyness, and social anxiety.Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 6, 482–491.Google Scholar
  3. Arkin, R. M., & Appelman, A. J. (1983). Social anxiety and receptivity to interpersonal evaluation.Motivation and Emotion, 7, 11–18.Google Scholar
  4. Arkowitz, H., Hinton, R., Perl, J., & Himadi, W. (1978). Treatment strategies for dating anxiety based on real-life practice.Counseling Psychologist, 7, 41–46.Google Scholar
  5. Barlow, D. H. (1991). Disorders of emotions: Clarifications, elaboration, and future directions.Psychological Inquiry, 2, 97–105.Google Scholar
  6. Becker, R. E., & Heimberg, R. G. (1988). Assessment of social skills. In A. S. Bellack & M. Hersen (Eds.),Behavioral assessment (pp. 365–395). New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  7. Beidel, D., Turner, S. M., & Cancu, C. V. (1985). Physiological, cognitive and behavioral aspects of social anxiety.Behavior Research and Therapy, 23, 109–117.Google Scholar
  8. Bellack, A. S., Hersen, M., & Lamparski, D. (1979). Role-play test for assessing social skills: Are they useful? Are they valid?Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, 335–342.Google Scholar
  9. Bellack, A. S., Hersen, M., & Turner, S. M. (1978). Role-play tests for assessing social skills: Are they valid?Behavior Therapy, 9, 448–461.Google Scholar
  10. Bellack, A. S., Hersen, M., & Turner, S. M. (1979). Relationship of role playing and knowledge of appropriate behavior to assertion in the natural environment.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, 670–678.Google Scholar
  11. Blackwell, R. T., Balassi, J. P., Galassi, M. D., & Watson, T. E. (1985). Are cognitive assessment methods equal? A comparison of think aloud and thought listing.Cognitive Therapy and Research, 9, 399–413.Google Scholar
  12. Bradac, J. J., Davies, R. A., Courtright, J. A., Desmond, R. J., & Murdock, J. I. (1977). Richness of vocabulary: An attributional analysis.Psychological Reports, 41, 1131–1134.Google Scholar
  13. Buss, A. H. (1980).Self-consciousness and social anxiety. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  14. Cacioppo, J. T., & Petty, R. E. (1981). Social psychological procedures for cognitive response assessment: The thought-listing technique. In T. V. Merluzzi, C. R. Glass, & M. Genest (Eds.),Cognitive assessment (pp. 309–342). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  15. Capella, J. N. (1985). Production principles for turn-taking rules in social interaction: Socially anxious vs. socially secure persons.Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 4, 192–212.Google Scholar
  16. Clark, J. V., & Arkowitz, H. (1975). Social anxiety and self-evaluation of interpersonal performance.Psychological Reports, 36, 211–221.Google Scholar
  17. Cocker, D. A., & Burgoon, J. K. (1987). The nature of conversational involvement and nonverbal encoding patterns.Human Communication Research, 13, 463–494.Google Scholar
  18. Cohen, S., Sherrod, D., & Clark, M. (1986). Social skills and the stress protective role of social support.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 963–973.Google Scholar
  19. Cole, D. A., & Milstead, M. (1989). Behavioral correlates of depression: Antecedents or consequences?Journal of Counseling Psychology, 36, 408–416.Google Scholar
  20. Conger, J. C., & Farrell, A. D. (1981). Behavioral components of heterosocial skills.Behavior Therapy, 12, 41–55.Google Scholar
  21. Conger, A. J., Wallander, J. L., Mariotto, M. J., & Ward, D. (1980). Peer judgments of heterosexual-social anxiety and skill: What do they pay attention to anyhow?Behavioral Assessment, 2, 243–259.Google Scholar
  22. Coyne, J. C. (1976). Depression and the response of others. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85, 186–193.Google Scholar
  23. Cupach, W. R., & Spitzberg, B. H. (1981).Relational competence: Measurement and validation. Unpublished manuscript, Illinois State University, Department of Communication.Google Scholar
  24. Curran, J. P. (1977). Skills training as an approach to the treatment of heterosexual-social anxiety.Psychological Bulletin, 84, 140–157.Google Scholar
  25. Curran, J. P., Wallander, J. L., & Fischetti, M. (1980). The importance of behavioral and cognitive factors in heterosexual-social anxiety.Journal of Personality, 48, 285–292.Google Scholar
  26. DePaulo, B. M., Epstein, J. A., & LeMay, C. S. (1990). Responses of the socially anxious to the prospect of interpersonal evaluation.Journal of Personality, 58, 623–640.Google Scholar
  27. Dillard, J. P., & Spitzberg, B. H. (1984). Global impressions of social skills: Behavioral predictors. In R. N. Bostrom (Ed.),Communication yearbook (Vol. 8, pp. 446–463). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  28. Dobson, K. S. (1989). Real and perceived interpersonal responses to subclinically anxious and depressed targets.Cognitive Therapy and Research, 13, 37–47.Google Scholar
  29. Dodge, C. S., Heimberg, R. G., Nyman, D., & O'Brian, G. T. (1987). Daily heterosocial interactions of high and low socially anxious college students: A diary study.Behavior Therapy, 18, 90–96.Google Scholar
  30. Farrell, A. D., Mariotto, M. J., Conger, A. J., Curran, J. P., & Wallander, J. L. (1979). Self-ratings and judges' ratings of heterosexual social anxiety and skill: A generalizability study.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, 164–175.Google Scholar
  31. Fleiss, J. L. (1981).Statistical methods for rates and proportions. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  32. Frisch, M. B., & Higgins, R. L. (1986). Instructional demand effects and the correspondence among role-play, self-report, and naturalistic measures of social skill.Behavioral Assessment, 8, 221–236.Google Scholar
  33. Glasgow, R., & Arkowitz, H. (1975). The behavioral assessment of male and female social competence in dyadic heterosexual interactions.Behavior Therapy, 6, 488–498.Google Scholar
  34. Glass, C. R., & Arnkoff, D. B. (1989). Behavioral assessment of social anxiety and social phobia.Clinical Psychology Review, 9, 75–90.Google Scholar
  35. Gotlib, I. H., & Cane, D. B. (1989). Self-report assessment of depression and anxiety. In P. C. Kendall & D. Watson (Eds.),Anxiety and depression: Distinctive and overlapping features (pp. 131–169). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  36. Greenwald, D. P. (1977). The behavioral assessment of differences in social skill and social anxiety in female college students.Behavior Therapy, 8, 925–937.Google Scholar
  37. Gurtman, M. B., Martin, K. M., & Hintzman, N. M. (1990). Interpersonal reactions to displays of depression and anxiety.Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 9, 256–267.Google Scholar
  38. Heimberg, R. G., Klosko, J. S., Dodge, C. S., Shadick, R., Becker, R. E., & Barlow, D. H. (1989). Anxiety disorders, depression, and attributional style: A further test of the specificity of depressive attributions.Cognitive Therapy and Research, 13, 21–36.Google Scholar
  39. Ickes, W., Bissonnette, V., Garcia, S., & Stinson, L. L. (1990). Implementing and using the dyadic interaction paradigm. In C. Hendrick & M. S. Clark (Eds.),Research methods in personality and social psychology (pp. 16–44). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  40. Inderbitzen-Pisaruk, H., Clark, M. L., & Solano, C. H. (1992). Correlates of loneliness in midadolescence.Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 21, 151–167.Google Scholar
  41. Ingram, R. E. (1989). Affective confounds in social-cognitive research.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 715–722.Google Scholar
  42. Johnson, R. L., & Glass, C. R. (1989). Heterosocial anxiety and direction of attention in high school boys.Cognitive Therapy and Research, 13, 509–526.Google Scholar
  43. Jones, W. H., & Briggs, S. R. (1986).Manual for the social reticence scale. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  44. Jones, W. H., Briggs, S. R., & Smith, T. G. (1986). Shyness: Conceptualization and measurement.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 629–639.Google Scholar
  45. Jones, W. H., & Carpenter, B. N. (1986). Shyness, social behavior, and relationships. In W. H. Jones, J. M. Cheek, & S. R. Briggs (Eds.),Shyness: Perspectives on research and treatment (pp. 227–238). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  46. Kraft, T. (1971). Social anxiety model of alcoholism.Perceptual and Motor Skills, 33, 797–798.Google Scholar
  47. Lake, E. A., & Arkin, R. M. (1985). Reactions to objective and subjective interpersonal evaluation: The influence of social anxiety.Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 3, 141–160Google Scholar
  48. Leary, M. R. (1982). Social anxiety. In L. Wheeler (Ed.),Review of personality and social psychology (Vol. 3, pp. 97–120). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  49. Leary, M. R., Atherton, S. C., Hill, S., & Hur, C. (1986). Self-efficacy, social anxiety, and inhibition in interpersonal encounters.Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 4, 256–267.Google Scholar
  50. Leary, M. R., Knight, P. D., & Johnson, K. A. (1987). Social anxiety and dyadic conversation: A verbal response analysis.Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 5, 34–50.Google Scholar
  51. Leary, M. R., Kowalski, R. M., & Bergen, D. J. (1988). Interpersonal information acquisition and confidence in first encounters.Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 14, 68–77.Google Scholar
  52. Leary, M. R., Kowalski, R. M., & Campbell, C. D. (1988). Self-presentational concerns and social anxiety: The role of generalized impression expectations.Journal of Research in Personality, 22, 308–321.Google Scholar
  53. McFall, R. M. (1982). A review and reformulation of the concept of social skills.Behavioral Assessment, 4, 1–33.Google Scholar
  54. Merluzzi, T. V., & Biever, J. (1987). Role-playing procedures for the behavioral assessment of social skill: A validation study.Behavioral Assessment, 9, 361–377.Google Scholar
  55. Miller, J. F., & Chapman, R. S. (1993).SALT: Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts. Madison, WI: Waisman Center Language Analysis Laboratory.Google Scholar
  56. Mishler, E. G., & Waxler, N. E. (1968).Interaction in families. New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  57. Montgomery, R. L., Haemmerlie, F. M., & Edwards, M. (1991). Social, personal, and interpersonal deficits in socially anxious people.Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 6, 859–872.Google Scholar
  58. Patterson, M. L., Churchill, M. E., & Powell, J. L. (1991). Interpersonal expectancies and social anxiety in anticipating interaction.Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 4, 414–421.Google Scholar
  59. Peplau, L. A., Russell, D., & Heim, M. (1979). The experience of loneliness. In I. H. Frieze, D. Bar-Tal, & J. S. Carroll (Eds.),New approaches to social problems (pp. 53–78). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  60. Rapee, R. M., & Lim, L. (1992). Discrepancy between self- and observer ratings of performance in social phobics.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 728–731.Google Scholar
  61. Riggio, R. E., Throckmorton, B., & DePaola, S. (1990). Social skills and self-esteem.Personality and Individual Differences, 11, 799–804.Google Scholar
  62. Riggio, R. E., & Zimmerman, J. (1991). Social skills and interpersonal relationships: Influences on social support and support seeking. In W. H. Jones & D. Perlman (Eds.),Advances in personal relationships (Vol. 2, pp. 133–155). London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.Google Scholar
  63. Roethlisberger, F. J., & Dickson, W. J. (1939).Management and the worker. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Rogers, L. E., & Farace, R. V. (1975). Analysis of relational communication in dyads: New measurement procedures.Human Communication Research, 1, 222–239.Google Scholar
  65. Russell, D., & Cutrona, C. E. (1988).Development and evolution of the UCLA Loneliness Scale. Unpublished manuscript, Center for Health Services Research, College of Medicine, University of Iowa.Google Scholar
  66. Russell, D., Peplau, L. A., & Ferguson, M. L. (1978). Developing a measure of loneliness.Journal of Personality Assessment, 42, 290–294.Google Scholar
  67. Schacter, S. (1959).The psychology of affiliation. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  68. Schlenker, B. R., & Leary, M. R. (1982). Social anxiety and self-presentation: A conceptualization and model.Psychological Bulletin, 92, 641–669.Google Scholar
  69. Segrin, C. (1992). Specifying the nature of social skill deficits associated with depression.Human Communication Research, 19, 89–123.Google Scholar
  70. Segrin, C., & Dillard, J. P. (1992). The interactional theory of depression: A meta-analysis of the research literature.Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 11, 43–71.Google Scholar
  71. Solano, C. H., & Koeser, N. H. (1989). Loneliness and communication problems: Subjective anxiety or objective skills?Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 15, 126–133.Google Scholar
  72. Spitzberg, B. H. (1983). Communication competence as knowledge, skill, and impression.Communication Education, 32, 323–329.Google Scholar
  73. Spitzberg, B. H. (1988). Communication competence: Measures of perceived effectiveness. In C. H. Tardy (Ed.),A handbook for the study of human communication (pp. 67–107). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.Google Scholar
  74. Spitzberg, B. H., & Cupach, W. R. (1989).Handbook of interpersonal competence research. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  75. Torgrud, L. J., & Holborn, S. W. (1992). Developing externally valid role-play for assessment of social skills: A behavior analytic perspective.Behavioral Assessment, 14, 245–277.Google Scholar
  76. Trower, P. (1982). Toward a generative model of social skills: A critique and synthesis. In J. P. Curran & P. M. Monti (Eds.),Social skills training (pp. 399–427). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  77. Vernberg, E. M., Abwender, D. A., Ewell, K. K., & Beery, S. H. (1992). Social anxiety and peer relationships in early adolescence: A prospective analysis.Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 21, 189–196.Google Scholar
  78. Wallace, S. T., & Alden, L. E. (1991). A comparison of social standards and perceived ability in anxious and nonanxious men.Cognitive Therapy and Research, 15, 237–254.Google Scholar
  79. Zakahi, W. R., & Duran, R. L. (1982). All the lonely people: The relationship among loneliness, communicative competence, and communication anxiety.Communication Quarterly, 30, 203–209.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chris Segrin
    • 2
  • Terry Kinney
    • 1
  1. 1.University of MinnesotaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Communication StudiesUniversity of KansasLawrence

Personalised recommendations