Loneliness, emotional repression, marital quality, and major life events in women who develop breast cancer
- 208 Downloads
Women awaiting mammograms at a breast clinic were given questionnaires to investigate the role of psychosocial variables in the development of breast cancer while controlling for established breast cancer risk factors. Questionnaires to determine loneliness, emotional repression, marital quality, and major life changes were completed by 826 female volunteers who were later classified into groups according to their diagnoses. The total emotional repression score showed a hierarchy of most repression to least repression for the most-diseased to the most-healthy subjects. A breakdown of the emotional repression scale revealed that each group was significantly different from the other in suppression of anger and unhappiness. Women in the new cancer group showed significantly more loneliness than the women in the fibrocystic and normal groups. The newly diagnosed cancer group also had a higher proportion of women who experienced the death of a spouse or close family member within the past two years compared to the other groups.
KeywordsBreast Cancer Breast Cancer Risk Cancer Group Develop Breast Cancer Psychosocial Variable
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 2.American Cancer Society,Breast cancer: Cause and prevention (Report No. 407068). 1991.Google Scholar
- 7.Schatzkin, A., Jones, D. Y., Hoover, R. N., Taylor, R. P., Brinton, L. A., Ziegler, R. G., Harvey, E. B., Carter, C. L., Licitra, L. M., Dufour, M. C., & Larson, D. B., Alcohol consumption and breast cancer in the epidemiologic follow-up study of the first national health and nutrition examination survey.N Engl J Med 316: 1169–1173, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 16.Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Fisher, L. D., Ogrocki, P., Stout, J. C., Speicher, C. E., & Glaser, R., Maritial quality, marital disruption, and immune function.Psychosom Med 49:12–34, 1987.Google Scholar
- 19.Wirsching, M., Stierlin, H., Hoffmann, F., Weber, G., & Wirsching, B., Psychological identification of breast cancer patients before biopsy.Psychosom Med 26:1–10, 1982.Google Scholar
- 26.Spanier, G. B., Measuring dyadic adjustment: New scales for assessing the quality of marriage and similar dyads.J Mar Fam 38:15–28, 1976.Google Scholar
- 29.Russell, D. W., & Cutrona, C. E.:Development and evolution of the UCLA loneliness scale. University of Iowa, 1987.Google Scholar
- 30.Cooper, C. L., The social psychological precursors to cancer. In C. L. Cooper (Ed.),Psychosocial Stress and Cancer. New York: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 1984, (Pp. 21–33).Google Scholar
- 33.Netting, F. E., & Wilson, C. C., The human-animal bond: Implications for practice.Soc Work 32:60–64, 1987.Google Scholar