Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Rape: The roles of outcome expectancies and hypermasculinity

  • 77 Accesses

  • 2 Citations


Outcome expectancies regarding coercive sexual behavior of male undergraduates were investigated to understand their possible association with self-reported past and future coercive sexual behavior and hypermasculine personality styles. Subjects indicating lower negative outcome expectancies regarding rape reported a greater history of coercive sexual behavior and higher future likelihood of raping, and were more likely to fit a hypermasculine personality pattern. Regression analysis revealed that a hypermasculine personality style, self-reported likelihood of raping, and the interaction between rape outcome expectancies and hypermasculine personality best predicted a history of sexual coercion. Implications for future research and primary prevention are discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Archer, J., & Rhodes, C. (1989). The relationship between gender-related traits and attitudes.British Journal of Social Psychology, 28, 149–157.

  2. Bandura, A. (1973).Aggression: A social learning analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

  3. Breslin, F. C., Riggs, D. S., O'Leary, K. D., & Arias, I. (1988).The impact of interparental violence on dating violence: A social learning analysis, Unpublished manuscript.

  4. Briere, J., & Malamuth, N. (1983). Self-reported likelihood of sexually aggressive behavior: Attitudinal versus sexual explanations.Journal of Research in Personality, 17, 315–323.

  5. Ellis, L. (1989).Theories of rape: Inquiries into the causes of sexual aggression. New York: Hemisphere.

  6. Gold, S. R., Fultz, J., Burke, C. H., Prisco, A. G., & Willet, J. A. (1992). Vicarious emotional responses of macho college males.Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 7, 165–174.

  7. Jackson, D. N. (1974).Personality Research Form-Form E. Goshen, NY: Research Psychologists Press.

  8. Jenkins-Hall, K. D. (1989). The decision matrix. In D. R. Laws (Ed.)Relapse prevention with sex offenders (pp. 159–166). New York: Guilford.

  9. Koss, M. P., & Gidycz, C. A. (1985). Sexual experiences survey: Reliability and validity.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 422–423.

  10. Koss, M. P., & Oros, C. J. (1982). Sexual experiences survey: A research instrument investigating sexual aggression and victimization.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50(3), 455–457.

  11. Leverett, J. P., & Schewe, P. A. (1995).The modified Sexual Experiences Survey: Theoretical and empirical issues (submitted for publication).

  12. Malamuth, N. M. (1986). Predictors of naturalistic sexual aggression.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 953–962.

  13. Mosher, D. L. (1992). Macho men, machismo, and sexuality.Annual Review of Sex Research, 2, 199–247.

  14. Mosher, D. L., & Sirkin, M. (1984). Measuring a macho personality constellation.Journal of Research in Personality, 18, 150–163.

  15. Scully, D., & Marolla, J. (1985). “Riding the bull at Gilley's”: Convicted rapists describe the rewards of rape.Social Problems, 32, 251–263.

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

O'Donohue, W., McKay, J.S. & Schewe, P.A. Rape: The roles of outcome expectancies and hypermasculinity. Sex Abuse 8, 133–141 (1996). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02258006

Download citation

Key Words

  • rape
  • cognitions
  • outcome expectancies
  • hypermasculinity