Advertisement

Energetics of open atmospheric systems: Case study of an extratropical cyclone

  • G. B. Pant
Article
  • 52 Downloads

Summary

Available potential energy (APE) and kinetic energy (KE) processes for a limited region, containing and moving with an extratropical cyclone system, are discussed. The available potential energy and kinetic energy budgets for an extratropical cyclone over the continental United States during various stages of its life cycle are computed for the period 20–21 March 1962. Baroclinic component of APE based on the specification of a reference state for the limited moving volume is considered. The APE generation values for the case study reported by Vincent, Pant et al. [18] are used in the generation part of the budget. Energy exchange processes including a large amount of probable subgrid to grid-scale interaction are discussed in relation to the behaviour of the cyclone.

Keywords

Kinetic Energy Potential Energy Cyclone Energy Budget Limited Region 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Die Energetik offener atmosphärischer Systeme: Untersuchung einer außertropischen Zyklone

Zusammenfassung

Es werden die in einem außertropischen Zyklonensystem in einem begrenzten Gebiet sich vollziehenden Umsetzungen von verfügbarer Energie (APE) und kinetischer Energie (KE) besprochen. Die Budgets der verfügbaren Energie und der kinetischen Energie werden für eine außertropische Zyklone über dem kontinentalen Bereich der Vereinigten Staaten für die verschiedenen Entwicklungsstadien in der Zeit vom 20.–21. März 1962 berechnet. Die barokline Komponente der APE wird basierend auf eine Spezifikation eines Referenzzustandes für ein begrenztes Luftvolumen in Bewegung betrachtet. Die Werte der APE Produktion, die in einer Untersuchung von Vincent et al. [18] veröffentlicht sind, werden für den Produktionskern der Bilanz verwendet. Energieaustauschprozesse werden mit Berücksichtigung bedeutender Wechselwirkungen von geringen Distanzen auf Gitterdistanzgröße in ihrer Beziehung zum Verhalten der Zyklone besprochen.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Chien, H. H., Smith, P. J.: Synoptic and Kinetic Energy Analyses of Hurricane Camille (1969) during Transit Across the Southeastern United States. Mon. Weath. Rev.105, 67–77 (1977).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Edmon, H. J., Vincent, D. G.: An Application of the Two Tropical Parameterization Schemes of Convective Latent Heat Release in Mid-Latitudes. Mon. Weath. Rev.104, 1141–1153 (1976).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Johnson, D. R.: The Available Potential Energy of Storms. J. Atmos. Sci.27, 727–741 (1970).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kornegay, F. C., Vincent, D. G.: Kinetic Energy Budget Analysis during Interaction of Tropical Storm Candy (1968) with an Extratropical Frontal System. Mon. Weath. Rev.104, 849–859 (1976).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lorenz, E. N.: Available Potential Energy and Maintenance of General Circulation. Tellus7, 157–167 (1955).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Margules, M.: Über die Energie der Stürme. Jb. Zentralanst. Met., 1–26 (Translation by C. Abbe (1910) in Smithsonian Institute Misc. Collection)51, 553–595 (1903).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    O'Brian, J.: Alternative Solutions to the Classical Vertical Velocity Problem. J. Appl. Met.9, 197–203 (1970).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pant, G. B.: Available Potential Energy and Kinetic Energy Processes during the Life Cycle of an Extratropical Cyclone, Ph.D. Thesis, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, 99 pp. (1976).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Smith, P. J.: On the Contribution of a Limited Region to the Global Energy Budget. Tellus21, 202–207 (1969).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Smith, P. J., Horn, L. H.: A Computational Study of the Energetics of a Limited Region of the Atmosphere. Tellus21, 193–201 (1969).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Smith, P. J.: An Analysis of Kinematic Vertical Motions. Mon. Weath. Rev.99, 715–724 (1971).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Smith, P. J.: The Net Generation of Large-Scale Available Potential Energy by Subgrid-Scale Processes, J. Atmos. Sci.30, 1714–1717 (1973).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Smith, P. J., Adhikary, S. P.: The Dissipation of Kinetic Energy in Large Scale Atmospheric Circulations. Rev. Geoph. Spa. Phy.12, 281–284 (1974).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Smith, P. J., Vincent, D. G., Edmon, H. J.: The Time Dependence of Reference Pressure in Limited Region Available Potential Energy Budget Equations. Tellus29, 476–480 (1977).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Vincent, D. G., Chang, L. N.: Some Further Considerations Concerning Energy Budgets of Moving Systems. Tellus25, 224–232 (1973).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Vincent, D. G., Chang, L. N.: Kinetic Energy Budgets of Moving Systems: Case Studies for an Extratropical Cyclone and Hurricane Celia. Tellus27, 215–233 (1975).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vincent, D. G., Bossingham, K. E., Edmon, H. J.: Comparison of Large Scale Vertical Motions Computed by the Kinematic Method and Quasi-Geostrophic ω Equation. Proc. Sixth Conf. on Weather Forecasting and Analysis, 1976, Albany Newyork, pp. 357–364 (1976).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Vincent, D. G., Pant, G. B., Edmon, H. J.: Generation of Available Potential Energy of an Extratropical Cyclone System. Mon. Weath. Rev.105, 1252–1265 (1977).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ward, J. H., Smith, P. J.: A Kinetic Energy Budget Over North America during a Period of Short Synoptic Wave Development. Mon. Weath. Rev.104, 836–848 (1976).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. B. Pant
    • 1
  1. 1.Indian Institute of Tropical MeteorologyPune-411India

Personalised recommendations