The factors determining life conditions in running waters can be arranged in a hierarchical scheme. One of the main factors is stream velocity, which is described by Manning's formula. By transformation of the formula a set of variables is acquired with which a diagram is constructed to contain all hydraulic conditions in running water. By measuring the ground slope and the hydraulic radius at a certain station this station can be placed in the diagram. Data from Dutch streams and rivers form definite clusters enabling us to describe types of running waters on this base. The distribution patterns of stream organisms in accordance with stream hydraulics can be fit into the diagram as well.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
BOTOSANEANU, L., 1979. Quinze années de recherches sur la zonation des cours d'eau: 1963–1978. Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde, 49: 109–134.
FABER, TH., 1972. Regimes and regime-related basin properties of some Dutch small rivers. Thesis V. U., Amsterdam: 186 p.
HIGLER, L. W. G. and H. H. TOLKAMP, 1983. Hydropsychidae as bio-indicators. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 3: 331–341.
ILLIES, J. and L. BOTOSANEANU, 1963. Problèmes et méthodes de la classification et de la zonation écologique des eaux courantes, considerées surtout du point de vue faunistique. Mitt. Internat. Verein. Limnol., 12: 1–57.
NORTIER, I. W. and H. VAN DER VELDE, 1968. Hydraulica voor waterbouwkundigen. Stam, Culemborg: 321 p.
VRIES, J. J. DE, 1977. The stream network in The Netherlands as a groundwater discharge phenomenon. Geol. Mijnb., 56: 103–122.
About this article
Cite this article
Higler, L.W.G., Mol, A.W.M. Ecological types of running water based on stream hydraulics in The Netherlands. Hydrobiological Bulletin 18, 51–57 (1984). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02256674
- Distribution Pattern
- Life Condition
- Stream Velocity
- Hydraulic Condition
- Hydraulic Radius