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Ecological types of running water based on stream hydraulics in The Netherlands


The factors determining life conditions in running waters can be arranged in a hierarchical scheme. One of the main factors is stream velocity, which is described by Manning's formula. By transformation of the formula a set of variables is acquired with which a diagram is constructed to contain all hydraulic conditions in running water. By measuring the ground slope and the hydraulic radius at a certain station this station can be placed in the diagram. Data from Dutch streams and rivers form definite clusters enabling us to describe types of running waters on this base. The distribution patterns of stream organisms in accordance with stream hydraulics can be fit into the diagram as well.

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Higler, L.W.G., Mol, A.W.M. Ecological types of running water based on stream hydraulics in The Netherlands. Hydrobiological Bulletin 18, 51–57 (1984).

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  • Distribution Pattern
  • Life Condition
  • Stream Velocity
  • Hydraulic Condition
  • Hydraulic Radius