Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpu protein promotes both extracellular release of viral particles and degradation of CD4 in the endoplasmic reticulum. The correlation of anti-Vpu antibody (Ab) reactivity to Vpu and AIDS disease progression was studied in 162 HIV-1/AIDS patients after they had received highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for 1 year. Anti-Vpu Ab reactivity was analyzed by Western blot using a recombinant Vpu protein. Results showed that at baseline (prior to initiation of HAART), 31.5% of patients (51/162) had anti-Vpu Ab. The proportion of anti-Vpu Ab in patients with CD4 counts ≥500, 200–500 and <200/mm3 were 40.6, 34.7 and 14.3%, respectively (x 2 test, p<0.05). In addition, decreasing levels of anti-Vpu Ab reactivity were significantly correlated with increasing levels of HIV-1 viral load. After receiving HAART for 1 year, 7 of 111 anti-Vpu Ab-negative patients (6.3%) seroconverted (− → + group) and 8 of 51 anti-Vpu Ab-positive (15.7%) patients became negative (+ → − group). Among 104 anti-Vpu Ab-negative patients, 40 were selected for analysis of thevpu gene. All of them had an intactvpu gene. Patients were further divided into four groups according to their anti-Vpu Ab serostatus and anti-HIV-1 Ab was measured. The results showed that only the anti-Vpu Ab seroconverted group (− → +) had increased serum levels of anti-HIV-1 Abs after 1 year of HAART, while the other three groups (+ → +, − → − and + → −) had decreased serum levels of anti-HIV-1 Abs after 1 year of HAART (p<0.05). In conclusion, the presence of anti-Vpu Ab is associated with improved prognosis following HIV-1 infection, and seroconversion of anti-Vpu Ab in patients on HAART indicates significant recovery of immunity.
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Chen, Y.A., Rey, W., Lan, Y. et al. Antibody reactivity to HIV-1 Vpu in HIV-1/AIDS patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Biomed Sci 10, 266–275 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02256062
- Anti-Vpu antibody
- lgG subclasses
- vpu gene
- Viral load
- Total lgG
- Disease progression
- Highly active antiretroviral therapy