Physical dependence on nicotine gum: effect of duration of use
This study examined whether longer duration on nicotine gum promoted dependence on nicotine gum. Subjects (N=128) answering an advertisement for smoking cessation research and wanting to quit smoking cigarettes were randomly assigned to 1- or 3-month duration of nicotine gum use. Assessments were made weekly for smoking status (with biochemical verification) and withdrawal symptoms during and at the end of treatment. Follow-up was conducted at 1, 6 and 12 months to provide exploratory data on treatment outcome. The results showed minimal nicotine gum withdrawal symptoms after gum cessation with virtually no difference in gum withdrawal between the 1- and 3-month groups. Withdrawal symptoms from the nicotine gum included difficulty with concentration, increased variability on a reaction time task, and decreased vigor. The results also showed that continuous use of the gum at 1 year was observed in 1.5% of subjects and estimated to be as high as 14%. Finally, the 3-month group experienced a 2-fold increase in abstinence compared to the 1-month group, although this difference was not statistically significant. We conclude that there is minimal physical dependence on nicotine gum.
Key wordsNicotine gum Withdrawal signs Treatment outcome
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Fagerstrom KO, Melin B (1985) Nicotine chewing gum in smoking cessation: efficiency, nicotine dependence, therapy duration, and clinical recommendations. In: Grabowski J, Hall SM (eds) Pharmacological adjuncts in smoking cessation. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Dept of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC, pp 102–109Google Scholar
- Hatsukami DK, Hughes JR, Pickens RW (1985) Blood nicotine, smoke exposure and tobacco withdrawal symptoms. Addict Behav 10:413–417Google Scholar
- McNair DM, Lorr M, Droppleman LF (1971) Manual for the profile of mood states. Educational and Industrial Testing Service, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
- Minnesota Heart Health Program (1989) Quit and win participant manual: consumers guide to smoking cessation. Minneapolis, MN Regent of the University of MinnesotaGoogle Scholar
- Russell M, Raw M, Jarvis MJ (1990) Clinical use of nicotine gum. BMJ 280:1599–1602Google Scholar
- Subcommittee of the Research Committee of the British Thoracic Society (1983) Comparison of four methods of smoking withdrawal in patients with smoking related diseases. BMJ 286:595–597Google Scholar
- USDHHS (1988) The health consequences of smoking; nicotine addiction. A report of the surgeon general. US Government Printing Office. DHHS publication no 88-8406Google Scholar
- Woods MN (1992) Current issues in the use of dietary assessment. Health Psychol 11 [Supplement]:45–46Google Scholar
- Yellin AMA (1980) Standard visual stimulus for use in studies of attention and attention deficit disorders: toward the development standardized and selective attention tests. Res Commun Psychol Psych Behav 5:137–143Google Scholar