Systems practice

, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp 19–45 | Cite as

Applications of living systems theory

  • James Grier Miller
  • Jessie L. Miller


Living systems theory identifies basic principles that underlie the structure and processes of living things and relates them to the nonliving physical world, integrating and bringing order to the ever-growing mass of empirical data about them. In addition, living systems models and methodology are useful in empirical research on the great variety of systems of interest to psychology and related fields and in study of individual systems at any of the eight levels of living systems.

Key words

general systems theory living systems theory critical subsystem cross-level hypotheses 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • James Grier Miller
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jessie L. Miller
    • 3
  1. 1.Departments of Psychiatry and PsychologyUniversity of California at Los AngelesLos Angeles
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of California at San DiegoSan Diego
  3. 3.La Jolla

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