Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 26, Issue 1, pp 7–12 | Cite as

Survey of pesticides used in the control of ectoparasites of farm animals in Ghana

  • Bawa Awumbila
  • Eugene Bokuma


A study to identify the various types of pesticides used on farm animals in Ghana for the control of ectoparasites was conducted in 1989. Eleven organisations involved with pesticide use were questioned. Thirty organised farms and 110 kraals distributed throughout the 10 regions of Ghana were visited.

Twenty different pesticides were in use. Of these 45% were organophosphates, 30% were synthetic pyrethroids, 15% were carbamates and 10% organochlorines. The most widely distributed and used pesticide was an organochlorine (lindane), which accounted for 35% of those used on farms and 85% used by herdsmen. The most popular mode of application was by hand dressing. No withdrawal periods before slaughter or sale of milk for consumption were practised.

The implications of these findings in the light of possible emergence of pesticide resistance and health hazards are discussed.


Public Health Veterinary Medicine Avant Carbamate Farm Animal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Enquete Sur Les Pesticides Employes Pour La Lutte Contre Les Ectoparasites Des Animaux En Elevage Fermier Au Ghana


Les auteurs décrivent une étude réalisée en 1989 pour identifier les divers types de pesticides utilisés en élevage fermier dans la lutte contre les ectoparasites du bétail au Ghana. Des questionnaires ont été envoyés à 11 organismes concernés par leur emploi: 30 fermes individualisées et 110 kraals répartis sur 10 régions du Ghana ont été visités. Vingt pesticides de marques différentes ont été utilisés. Parmi eux, 40 p. 100 comportaient des organophosphatés, 30 p. 100 des pyréthrinoides de synthèse, 15 p. 100 des carbamates et 10 p. 100 des organochlorés. Le pesticide le plus largment répandu et utilisé était un organochloré, le lindane, qui représentait 35 p. 100 des pesticides employés dans les fermes et 85 p. 100 chez les éleveurs traditionnels. La technique d'utilisation la plus courante était l'application manuelle. Aucun arrêt avant l'abattage ou la vente du lait pour la consommation n'était pratiqué. Les auteurs discutent les implications de ces résultats, à la lumière d'une possible apparition d'une résistance aux pesticides et des risques encourus pour la santé.

Un Estudio De Pesticidas Utilizados En El Control De Ectoparasitos En Animales De Granja En Gana


Se realizó un estudio en 1989 para identificar los diferentes tipos de pesticidas utilizados para controlar parásitos externos, en animales de granja en Gana. Se encuestaron 11 organizaciones involucradas en el uso de pesticidas. Se visitaron 30 granjas organizadas y 110 unidades pastoriles, en las 10 regiones ganaderas del país. Veinte pesticidas diferentes estaban en uso. De estos, 40% eran organofosforados, 30% piretroides sintéticos, 15% fueron carbamatos y 10% organoclorinados. El pesticida más usado fue un organoclorinado (lindane), el cual constituyó el 35% de los pesticidas utilizados en las granjas y el 85% de los utilizados por los pastores. El método de aplicación más popular fue a mano. No se tuvo en cuenta período alguno de retiro del pesticida, antes de la matanza para venta de carne, o para la venta de leche. Se discuten las implicaciones de estos hallazgos, en relación a la posible emergencia de resistencia a los pesticidas y a los riesgos para la salud.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Agyen-Frempong, S. (1967). Ticks of Ghana, State Publishing Corporation, Accra, Ghana.Google Scholar
  2. Assoku, R. K. G. (1979). A study of the incidence of blood-borne parasites of livestock in southern Ghana.Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa,27, 29–39.Google Scholar
  3. Barnett, S. F. (1961).The Control of Ticks on Livestock. FAO Studies No. 54.Google Scholar
  4. Behrenz, W. (1959). Cited by Mollhof, W. (1967). The problem of residues in the control of warbles with synthetic insecticides.Veterinary Medical Review,2, 233–245.Google Scholar
  5. Bosompem, E. M. (1985). Studies of ecto- and endo-parasites of rabbits in some selected areas of the Accra-Plains. BSc. (Honours) Agriculture Dissertation, University of Ghana, Legon.Google Scholar
  6. Colle, N. A., Guillot, F. S. andPurdy, C. W. (1984). Influence ofPsoroptes ovis (Hering) (Acar; Psoroptides) on the performance of beef steers.Journal of Economic Entomology,77, 390–393.Google Scholar
  7. Dipeolu, O. O., Mongi, A. O., Nyindo, M. A., Essuman, S. T., Kamango-Sollo, E. I. P. &Odhiambo, T. R. (1990). Progress in the production of an anti-tick vaccine. Seventeenth Annual Report (1989). The International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), Nairobi, Kenya, pp 30–32,Google Scholar
  8. Drummond, R. O. (1983). Chemical control of ticks. In:World Animal Review. 36, FAO, Rome, pp 28–33.Google Scholar
  9. Fisher, W. F. &Wright, F. C. (1981). Effects of sheep scab mite on cumulative weight gains in cattle.Journal of Economic Entomology,74, 234–237.Google Scholar
  10. Georgi, J. R. (1969).Parasitology for Veterinarians. W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia. pp 224–228.Google Scholar
  11. Gorchakovskaya, N. N. (1955). Testing the methods of direct destruction of the tickIxodes persulcatus in nature. Cited by Barnett, S. F. (1961). In:The Control of Ticks on Livestock. FAO Studies No. 54Google Scholar
  12. Hall, H. B. T. (1977).Diseases and Parasites of Livestock in the Tropics. Longman Group, London.Google Scholar
  13. Harding, W. C. &Quigley, G. D. (1956). Litter treatment with malathion to control the chicken body louse. Cited by Barnett, S. F. (1961). In:The Control of Ticks on Livestock. FAO Studies, No. 54.Google Scholar
  14. Higgins, A. J. (1978). Tick Control. In:Proceedings of the First African Veterinary Congress. TAD-Pharmaceutisches Werk GmBH D-2190 Cuxhaven 1, West Germany. pp 47–52.Google Scholar
  15. Johnson, W. T. (1961). Cited by Lapage, G. (1968). In:Veterinary Parasitology. 2nd ed. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh and London. pp 1082–1120.Google Scholar
  16. Kumar, R. C. (1984).Insect Pest Control. English Language Book Society, London.Google Scholar
  17. Kwarko, K. A. (1988). A Study of the Incidence of Skin Diseases in Sheep and Goats in Selected Areas of the Greater-Accra Region of Ghana. BSc. Agriculture Dissertation. University of Ghana, Legon.Google Scholar
  18. Lapage, G. (1968).Veterinary Parasitology. 2nd ed. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh and London. pp 1082–1120.Google Scholar
  19. Liebisch, A. &Petrich, J. (1977). Zur gegenwärtigen Verbreitung und Bekämpfung der Rinderräude in Norddeutschland.Deutsche Tierärzliche Wochenschrift,84, 424–427.Google Scholar
  20. Oppong, E. N. W. (1971). Bovine demodicosis in the Accra-Plains.Bulletin of Epizootic Diseases in Africa,19, 19–25.Google Scholar
  21. Renney, D. J. (1985). The importance of mange and lice control in the pig industry. 16th Ghana Animal Science Symposium, Kumasi.Google Scholar
  22. Rodrigues, J. L. &Riehl, L. A. (1957). Cited by Barnett, S. F. (1961). The Control of Ticks of Livestock. FAO Studies, No. 54.Google Scholar
  23. Urquhart, G. W., Armour, J., Duncan, J. L., Dunn, A. M. &Jennings, F. W. (1987).Veterinary Parasitology. English Language Book Society, Longman, London. pp 265–268.Google Scholar
  24. Wharton, R. H. (1974). Ticks with special emphasis onBoophilus microplus.Control of Arthropods of Medical and Veterinary Importance. (Eds. R. Pal and R. H. Wharton). Plenum Press, New York and London. pp 35–48.Google Scholar
  25. Willadsen, P., Riding, G. A., Mckenna, R. V., Kemp, D. H., Tellam, R. L., Nielsen, J. N., Lahnstein, J., Coborn, G. S. &Gough, J. M. (1989). Immunologic control of a parasitic arthropod. Identification of a protective antigen fromBoophilus microplus.The Journal of Immunology,143, 1346–1351.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bawa Awumbila
    • 1
  • Eugene Bokuma
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Animal ScienceUniversity of GhanaLegonGhana

Personalised recommendations