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Diagnostic and therapeutic applications of monoclonal antibodies in colorectal cancer

Abstract

PURPOSE: The study contained herein was undertaken to review and summarize the current literature on diagnostic and therapeutic applications of monoclonal antibodies in colorectal cancer. RESULTS: Limitations of traditional imaging techniques have encouraged development of targeted imaging strategies using radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies. Diagnostic immunoscintigraphy can detect lesions not identified by conventional imaging modalities, although it has not proven useful in the management of primary colorectal cancers and in hepatic metastases. Immunoscintigraphy shows promise in cases of local recurrence and rising carcinoembryonic antigen values; however, the impact of immunoscintigraphy on clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness remains unproven. Radioimmunoguided surgery has been advocated as a method of more accurately detecting tumor extension and accomplishing radical resection. The technique remains controversial, and its use is not widespread. With respect to therapeutic applications, immunotherapy has most often been investigated in the setting of advanced stage disease. Results in this setting have been poor. In contrast, adjuvant immunotherapy after resection of Dukes C carcinoma has achieved convincing results, with improvements in survival comparable with that of adjuvant chemotherapy. Adjuvant trials are now under way to examine the effectiveness of monoclonal antibodies in the postoperative treatment of early-stage (II) tumors and the combination of monoclonal antibodies and chemotherapy in advanced-stage (III) tumors. Bispecific antibodies, or immunoconjugates with cytokines or toxins, represent additional areas of interest and future investigations. CONCLUSIONS: At present, immunoscintigraphy is not sufficient to determine, by itself, resectability of colorectal tumor and has limited usefulness in select cases of recurrent cancer and possibly in cases of rising carcinoembryonic antigen values. Immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies as a postoperative adjuvant treatment shows promise and is currently being investigated in national trials.

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Correspondence to Dr. Heidi Nelson M.D..

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Stocchi, L., Nelson, H. Diagnostic and therapeutic applications of monoclonal antibodies in colorectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum 41, 232–250 (1998). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02238254

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Key words

  • Monoclonal antibody
  • Colorectal cancer
  • Immunoscintigraphy
  • Immunotherapy