Advertisement

Environmentalist

, Volume 6, Issue 4, pp 251–257 | Cite as

The environmental dimension to security issues

  • Norman Myers
Article

Summary

Citing topical international instances the author demonstrates that environmental impoverishment is a major cause for tension and hostilities between nations. He makes a strong case that an assessment of security concepts should include a measure of environmental and resource-based stability.

“Few threats to peace and survival of the human community are greater than those posed by the prospects of cumulative and irreversible degradation of the biosphere on which human life depends. In a global context, true security cannot be achieved by mounting buildup of weapons (defense in a narrow sense), but only by providing basic conditions for solving non-military problems which threaten them. Our survival depends not only on military balance, but on global cooperation to ensure a sustainable biological environment.”

Report of the Brandt Commission, 1980

Keywords

Environmental Management Nature Conservation Human Life Security Issue Human Community 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abbott, L. T., Bronars, L., and Rholes, J. M. (1985)Water and Water Policy in World Food Supplies. Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas, USA.Google Scholar
  2. Agency for International Development (1982)Environmental Profile of El Salvador. Agency for International Development, Washington DC, USA.Google Scholar
  3. Bach, R. L. (1985)Western Hemispheric Immigration to the United States. Center for Immigration Policy and Refugee Assistance, Georgetown University, Washington DC, USA.Google Scholar
  4. Baldman, A., and Foster, C. (eds.), (1984)Haiti: Today and Tomorrow. University of America Press, Lanham, Massachusetts, USA.Google Scholar
  5. Berryman, A. (1983)Central American Refugees: A Survey of the Current Situation. American Friends Service Committee, Philadelphia, Pennyslvania, USA.Google Scholar
  6. Brandt Commission (1980)North-South: A Program for Survival. (Report of the Independent Commission on International Development Issues). Pan Books, London, UK and New York, USA.Google Scholar
  7. Brandt, W. (1985)Peace and Development. Third World Foundation, London, UK.Google Scholar
  8. Brown, L. H. and Wolf, E. C. (1985)Reversing Africa's Decline. Worldwatch Institute, Washington DC, USA.Google Scholar
  9. Chaney, E. M. (1985)Migration from the Caribbean Region: Determinants and Effects of Current Movements. Center for Immigration Policy and Refugee Assistance, Georgetown University, Washington DC, USA.Google Scholar
  10. Cloudsley-Thompson, J. L. (1984) Water into the 1990's: The Problems of the Desert Biome.International Journal of Environmental Studies 25, 149–158Google Scholar
  11. Cool, J. C. (1984)Factors Affecting Pressure on Mountain Resource Systems. Agricultural Development Council, Kathmandu, Nepal.Google Scholar
  12. Cooley, J. K. (1984) The War Over Water.Foreign Policy 54, 3–26.Google Scholar
  13. de Mare, L. (1976)Resources, Needs, Problems: An Assessment of the World Water Situation by 2000. Department of Water Resources Engineering, University of Lund, Sweden.Google Scholar
  14. DeWalt, B. R. (1985) The Agrarian Bases of Conflict in Central America. In: Coleman, K. and Herring, G. (eds.)The Central American Crisis: Sources of Conflict and the Failure of U.S. Policy, 43–54. Scholarly Resources Inc., Wilmington, Delaware, USA.Google Scholar
  15. Diskin, M. (ed.), (1983)Trouble in Our Backyard. Pantheon Books, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  16. Dregne, H. E. (1985) Aridity and Land Degradation.Environment (27) 16–20, 28–33.Google Scholar
  17. Durham, W. H. (1979)Scarcity and Survival in Central America: Ecological Origins of the Soccer War. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, USA.Google Scholar
  18. Falkenmark, M. (1984) New Ecological Approach to the Water Cycle: Ticket to the Future.Ambio (13) 152–160.Google Scholar
  19. Farer, T. J. (1979)War Clouds on the Horn of Africa. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Washington DC, USA.Google Scholar
  20. Galtung, J. (1982)Environment, Development and Military Activities. Columbia University Press, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  21. Independent Commission on International Humanitarian Issues (1985)Famine: A Man-Made Disaster? Pan Books, London, UK.Google Scholar
  22. Kellogg, W. W. (1982) Society, Science and Climatic Change.Foreign Affairs 60, 1076–1109.Google Scholar
  23. The Kissinger Commission (1984)The Report of the President's National Bipartisan Commission on Central America. Macmillan Publishing Co., New York, USA.Google Scholar
  24. Laguerre, M. S. (1984)Haitian Odyssey, Haitians in New York City. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  25. Leonard, J. (1986)National Resources and Economic Development in Central America: A Regional Environmental Profile. International Institute for Environment and Development, Washington DC, USA, (in press).Google Scholar
  26. Lewis, L. A. and Coffey, W. J. (1985) The Continuing Deforestation of Haiti.Ambio (14) 158–160.Google Scholar
  27. Luckham, R. and Bekele, D. (1984) Foreign Powers and Militarism in the Horn of Africa.Review of African Political Economy 30, 8–20, and 31, 7–28.Google Scholar
  28. Lundqvist, J., Lohm, U., and Falkenmark, M. (eds.) (1985)Strategies for River Basin Management. D. Reidel, Dardrecht, Netherlands, and Boston, USA.Google Scholar
  29. Mabbutt, J. A. (1984) A New Global Assessment of the Status and Trends of Desertification.Environmental Conservation 11, 103–113Google Scholar
  30. Maguire, A. and Brown, J. W. (eds.) (1986)Common Ground: Natural Resources and U.S. Ties to Latin America. World Resources Institute, Washington DC, USA, (in press).Google Scholar
  31. Matson, R. C. and Naff, T. (1984)Water in the Middle East: Conflict or Cooperation. Westview Press, Boulder, Colarado, USA.Google Scholar
  32. McCormick, J. (1985)Acid Earth: The Global Threat of Acid Pollution. Earthscan Ltd., London, UK and Washington DC, USA.Google Scholar
  33. Myers, N. (1983)A Wealth of Wild Species. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, USA.Google Scholar
  34. Myers, N. (1984)The Primary Source: Tropical Forests and Our Future. W. W. Norton, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  35. Myers, N. (1986)The U.S. Stake in the Global Environment. World Resources Institute, Washington DC, USA, (in press).Google Scholar
  36. National Research Council (1983)Changing Climate. National Academy Press, Washington DC, USA.Google Scholar
  37. Pastor, R. A. (ed.) (1985)Migration and Development in the Caribbean: The Unexplored Connection. Westview Press, Boulder, Colarado, USA.Google Scholar
  38. Postel, S. (1984)Water: Rethinking Management in an Age of Scarcity. Worldwatch Institute, Washington DC, USA.Google Scholar
  39. Saunders, J. (ed.) (1986)Population Growth in Latin America and U.S. National Security. Allen and Unwin, London, UK.Google Scholar
  40. Seidel, S., and Keyes, D. (1983)Can We Delay a Greenhouse Warming? Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC, USA.Google Scholar
  41. Shepherd, J. (1975)The Politics of Starvation. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Washington DC, USA.Google Scholar
  42. Teitelbaum, M. S. (1985)Latin Migration North: The Problem for U.S. Foreign Policy. Council on Foreign Relations, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  43. Thompson, R. L. (1978) Water as a Source of Conflict.Strategic Review 6, 62–71.Google Scholar
  44. Thompson-Hope, E. (1986)Environment and Perception in Caribbean Migration. Monograph, Centre of Caribbean Studies, University of Warwick, Warwick, UK.Google Scholar
  45. Tinker, J. and Timberlake, L. (1985)Environment and Conflict. Earthscan, London, UK.Google Scholar
  46. Ullman, R. H. (1983) Redefining Security.International Security 8, 129–153.Google Scholar
  47. United Nations Document A/S-10/AC.1/28 (1978) United Nations, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  48. Westing, A. H. (ed.) (1986)Global Resources and International Conflict. Oxford University Press, London, UK and New York, USA.Google Scholar
  49. Wetstone, G. S. and Rosencranz, A. (1983)Acid Rain in Europe and North America: National Responses to an International Problem. Environmental Law Institute, Washington DC, USA.Google Scholar
  50. Wiarda, H. J. (ed.) (1984)The Crisis in Latin America: Strategic, Economic and Political Dimensions. American Enterprise Institute, Washington DC, USA.Google Scholar
  51. Wilson, T. J. (1982) National Security: New Perceptions.Interaction (periodical publication of the Global Tomorrow Coalition, Washington DC, USA), 2, 4 and 9.Google Scholar
  52. World Bank and World Resources Institute (1985)Tropical Forests: A Call for Action. World Bank and World Resources Institute, Washington DC, USA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science and Technology Letters 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Norman Myers
    • 1
  1. 1.Upper MeadowHeadington, OxfordUK

Personalised recommendations