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Third world sanitation options — the Zambian case

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Water-borne sanitation it too expensive to install in low cost urban housing areas in the Third World, and interest has turned to various inexpensive ‘alternative’ systems. In the Zambian context, such systems must be cheap to install, and require a minimum of maintenance, which must be of low complexity.

After examining a wide range of systems, the author concludes that three unlined and three lined toilet types are suitable for trial installation in peripheral and central low cost housing areas respectively. A strategy for conducting tests is outlined and the importance of organisational and community development emphasized.

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Dr. Dave Todd is a Senior Lecturer in Sociology, in the School of Environmental Studies at the University of Zambia. On behalf of Zambia's National Housing Authority, in 1979, he was Consultant Sociologist to that country'sUrban Sanitation Survey.

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Todd, D.M. Third world sanitation options — the Zambian case. Environmentalist 5, 111–121 (1985).

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  • Environmental Management
  • Nature Conservation
  • Community Development
  • Economic Geology
  • Cost Housing