, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp 111–121 | Cite as

Third world sanitation options — the Zambian case

  • David M. Todd


Water-borne sanitation it too expensive to install in low cost urban housing areas in the Third World, and interest has turned to various inexpensive ‘alternative’ systems. In the Zambian context, such systems must be cheap to install, and require a minimum of maintenance, which must be of low complexity.

After examining a wide range of systems, the author concludes that three unlined and three lined toilet types are suitable for trial installation in peripheral and central low cost housing areas respectively. A strategy for conducting tests is outlined and the importance of organisational and community development emphasized.


Environmental Management Nature Conservation Community Development Economic Geology Cost Housing 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Science and Technology Letters 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • David M. Todd
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Environmental StudiesUniversity of Zambia at NdolaKitweZambia

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