The American Journal of Digestive Diseases

, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp 54–102 | Cite as

Electrical activity of the gastrointestinal tract as an indication of mechanical activity

  • Edwin E. Daniel
  • Kent M. Chapman


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Allen, G. L., Poole, E. W., andCode, C. F. A search for relationship between antral and duodenal electrical activity.Fed. Proc. 21:261, 1962.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alvarez, W. C. Bayliss and Starling's Law of the Intestine or the myenteric reflex.Am. J. Physiol. 69:229, 1924.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alvarez, W. C. Anoxemia used as a means of analyzing the structure and function of the nervous system of the bowel.Am. J. Digest. Dis. & Nutri. 4:550, 1937.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alvarez, W. C. An Introduction to Gastro-Eenterology (ed. 4). Heinemann, London, 1949.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Alvarez, W. C, andMahoney, L. J. Action currents in stomach and intestine.Am. J. Physiol. 58:476, 1922.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Alvarez, W. C, andStarkwfather, E. The metabolic gradient underlying intestinal peristalsis.Am. J. Physiol. 46:186, 1918.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Amatniek, E. Measurement of bioelectric potentials with microelectrodes and neutralized input capacity amplifiers.I.R.E. Trans. Med. Electron. PGME-10:3, 1958.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Armstrong, H. I. O., Milton, G. W., andSmith, A. W. M. Electropotential changes of the small intestine.J. Physiol. 132:100, 1956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bass, P., Code, C. F., andLambert, E. H. Motor and electric activity of the duodenum.Am. J. Physiol. 201:287, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bass, P., Code, C. F., andLambert, E. H. Electric activity of the gastroduodenal junction.Am. J. Physiol. 201:587, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 10a.
    Bass, P. Personal communication.Google Scholar
  12. 11.
    Bayliss, W. M., andStarling, E. H. The movements and innervation of the small intestine.J. Physiol. 24: 99, 1899.Google Scholar
  13. 12.
    Bayliss, W. M., andStarling, E. H. The movements and innervation of the large intestine.J. Physiol. 26: 107, 1900.Google Scholar
  14. 13.
    Bayliss, W. M., andStarling, E. H. The movements and innervation of the small intestine.J. Physiol. 26: 125, 1901.Google Scholar
  15. 14.
    Bortoff, A. Slow potential variations of small intestine.Am. J. Physiol. 201:203, 1961.Google Scholar
  16. 15.
    Bortoff, A. Electrical activity of intestine recorded with pressure electrode.Am. J. Physiol. 201:209, 1961.Google Scholar
  17. 16.
    Bozler, E. The action potentials of visceral smooth muscle.Am. J. Physiol. 124:502, 1938.Google Scholar
  18. 17.
    Bozler, E. The action potentials of the stomach.Am. J. Physiol. 144:693, 1945.Google Scholar
  19. 18.
    Bozler, E. The relation of the action potentials to mechanical activity in intestinal muscle.Am. J. Physiol. 146: 496, 1946.Google Scholar
  20. 19.
    Bozler, E. The myenteric reflex.Fed. Proc. 7:12, 1948.Google Scholar
  21. 20.
    Brüne, H. F., andKotowski, H. Die Erregungsleitung in der glatten Muskulatur des Meerschweinchen-Dickdarmes.Pflüger's Arch. ges. Physiol. 262:484, 1956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 21.
    Buirge, R. E. Gross variations in the ileocecal valve. A study of the factors underlying incompetency.Anat. Rec. 86: 373, 1943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 22.
    Bülbring, E. Physiology and pharmacology of intestinal smooth muscle.Lect. on Sci. Basis of Med. 7:374, 1957/8.Google Scholar
  24. 23.
    Bülbring, E., Burnstock, G., andHolman, M. E. Excitation and conduction in the smooth muscle of the isolated taenia coli of the guinea pig.J. Physiol. 142:420, 1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 24.
    Bülbring, E., Lin, R. C. Y., andSchofield, G. An investigation of the peristaltic reflex in relation to anatomical observations.Quart. J. Exper. Physiol. 43:26, 1958.Google Scholar
  26. 25.
    Bülbring, E., andLin, R. C. Y. The effect of intraluminal application of 5-hydroxy-tryptamine and 5-hydroxytryptophan on peristalsis; the local production of 5-HT and its release in relation to intraluminal pressure and propulsive activity.J. Physiol. 140: 381, 1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 26.
    Bülbring, E., andCrema, A. Observations concerning the action of 5-hydroxy-tryptamine on the peristaltic reflex.Brit. J. Pharmacol. 13:444, 1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 27.
    Burnstock, G., andProsser, C. L. Response of smooth muscles to quick stretch; relation of stretch to conduction.Am. J. Physiol. 198:921, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 28.
    Burnstock, G., andProsser, C. L. Conduction in smooth muscles; comparative electrical properties.Am. J. Physiol. 199:553, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 28a.
    Burnstock, G., andStraub, R. W. A method for studying the effects of ions and drugs on the resting and action potentials in smooth muscle with external electrodes.J. Physiol. 140: 156, 1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 29.
    Cannon, W. B. Peristalsis, segmentation, and the myenteric reflex.Am. J. Physiol. 20:114,1912.Google Scholar
  32. 30.
    Celander, O. Are there any centrally controlled sympathetic inhibitory fibres to the musculature of the intestine?Acta physiol. scandinav. 47:299, 1959.Google Scholar
  33. 31.
    Chaudhary, N. A., andTruelove, S. C. Human colonic motility; a comparative study of normal subjects, patients with ulcerative colitis, and patients with the irritable colon syndrome. I. Resting patterns of motility.Gastroenterology 40:1, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 32.
    Chaudhary, N. A., andTruelove, S. C. Human colonic motility: a comparative study of normal subjects, patients with ulcerative colitis, and patients with the irritable colon syndrome. II. The effect of prostigmin.Gastroenterology 40:18, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 33.
    Chaudhary, N. A., andTruelove, S. C. Human colonic motility: a comparative study of normal subjects, patients with ulcerative colitis, and patients with the irritable colon syndrome. III. Effects of emotions.Gastroenterology 40:27, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 34.
    Code, C. F., Hightower, N. C, andMorlock, C. G. Motility of the alimentary canal in man.Am. J. Med. 13:328, 1952.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 35.
    Daniel, E. E. Effects of altered extracellular electrolytes on periodic propagated depolarizations (slow waves) of longitudinal muscle of dog intestine.Fed. Proc. 21:261, 1962.Google Scholar
  38. 36.
    Daniel, E. E., andSingh, H. The electrical properties of the smooth muscle cell membrane.Canad. J. Biochem. & Physiol. 36:959, 1958.Google Scholar
  39. 37.
    Daniel, E. E., Carlow, D. R., Wachter, B. T., Sutherland, W. H., andBococh, A. Electrical activity of the small intestine.Gastroenterology 37:268, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 38.
    Daniel, E. E., Wachter, B. T., Honour, A. J., andBogoch, A. The relationship between electrical and mechanical activity of the small intestine of dog and man.Canad. J. Biochem. & Physiol. 38:777, 1960.Google Scholar
  41. 39.
    Daniel, E. E., Honour, A. J., andBogoch, A. Electrical activity of the longitudinal muscle of dog small intestine studied in vivo using microelectrodes.Am. J. Physiol. 198:113, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 40.
    Daniel, E. E., andBogoch, A. Unpublished results.Google Scholar
  43. 41.
    Davenport, H. W. Physiology of the Digestive Tract. Yr. Bk. Pub., Chicago. 1961.Google Scholar
  44. 42.
    Donaldson, P. E. K. Electronic Apparatus for Biological Research. Butterworth, London, 1958.Google Scholar
  45. 43.
    Douglas, D. M. Transmission of excitation in the wall of the intestine.Am. J. Digest. Dis. 5:339, 1960.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 44.
    Evans, D. H. L., andSchild, H. O. The reactions of plexus-free circular muscle of cat jejunum to drugs.J. Physiol. 119:376, 1953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 45.
    Feldberg, W., andLin, R. C. Y. Synthesis of acetylcholine in the wall of the digestive tract.J. Physiol. 111: 96, 1950.Google Scholar
  48. 46.
    Feldberg, W., andToh, C. C. Distribution of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, enteramine) in the wall of the digestive tract.J. Physiol. 119:352, 1953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 47.
    Feldberg, W., Douglas, W. W., Paton, W. D. M., andSchachter, M. Distribution of histamine and substance P in the wall of the dog's digestive tract.J. Physiol. 115: 163, 1951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 48.
    Fink, S., andFriedman, G. The differential effect of drugs on the proximal and distal colon.Am. J. Med. 28:534, 1960.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 49.
    Fleischner, F. G., andBernstein, C. Roentgen anatomical studies of the normal ileocecal valve.Radiology 54: 43, 1950.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 50.
    Garry, R. C, andGillespie, J. S. The responses of the musculature of the colon of the rabbit to stimulation in vitro, of the parasympathetic and of the sympathetic outflows.J. Physiol. 128:557, 1955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 51.
    Garry, R. C. The movements of the large intestine.Physiol. Rev. 14:103, 1934.Google Scholar
  54. 52.
    Gillespie, J. S., andMackenna, B. R. The inhibitory action of the sympathetic nerves on the smooth muscle of the rabbit gut, its reversal by reserpine and restoration by catechol amines and by dopa.J. Physiol. 156:17, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 53.
    Greven, K. Der Nachweis motorischer Einheiten im Mechanogramm der Darm-Längsmuskulatur.Pflüger's Arch. ges. Physiol. 265:18, 1957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 54.
    Greven, K. Ruhe-und Aktionspotentiale der glatten Muskulatur nach Unter-suchungen mit Glaskapillarelektroden.Zeit. Biol. 106:1, 1953.Google Scholar
  57. 55.
    Greven, K. Über der Mechanismes der Regulierung der Kontraktionsstärke beim glatten Muskel durch tetanische und quantitative (räumliche) Summation.Zeit. Biol. 106:377, 1953.Google Scholar
  58. 56.
    Greven, K. Erregungsbildung und Erregungsleitung am Meerschweinchendunn-darm nebst ihrer Beeinflussung durch vegitativ Mimetica.Zeit. Biol. 108:65, 1955.Google Scholar
  59. 57.
    Harris, L. D., Ashworth, W. D., andIngelfinger, F. J. Esophageal aperistalsis and achalasia produced in dogs by prolonged cholinesterase inhibition.J. Clin. Invest. 39: 1744, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 58.
    Hinrichser, J., andIvy, A. C. Studies on the ileocecal sphincter of the dog.Am. J. Physiol. 16:494, 1931.Google Scholar
  61. 59.
    Holaday, D. A., Volk, H., andMandell, J. Electrical activity of the small intestine with special reference to the origin of rhythmicity.Am. J. Physiol. 195:505, 1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 60.
    Hukuhara, T., andMiyake, T. The intrinsic reflexes in the colon.Japanese J. Physiol. 9:49, 1959.Google Scholar
  63. 61.
    Hukuhara, T., Nakayama, S., andNanba, R. Locality of receptors concerned with the intestino-intestinal extrinsic and intestinal muscular intrinsic reflexes.Japanese J. Physiol. 10: 414, 1960.Google Scholar
  64. 62.
    Hukuhara, T., Nakayama, S., andNanba, R. The effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine upon the intestinal motility, especially with respect to the intestinal mucosal intrinsic reflex.Japanese J. Physiol. 10:420, 1960.Google Scholar
  65. 63.
    Hukuhara, T., Nakayama, S., andNanba, R. The role of the intrinsic mucosal reflex in the fluid transport through the denervated colonic loop.Japanese J. Physiol. 11:71, 1961.Google Scholar
  66. 64.
    Hukuhara, T., Nakayama, S., andSumi, T. The role of the intrinsic mucosal reflex in the fluid transport through the denervated intestinal loop.Japanese J. Physiol. 9:400, 1959.Google Scholar
  67. 65.
    Hukuhara, T., Okada, H., andYamagami, M. A factor conditioning the inhibitory response of the intestinal motility to the peripheral stimulation of the cervical vagus nerves.Acta medicinae Okayama, 11:103, 1957.Google Scholar
  68. 66.
    Hukuhara, T., Sumi, T., andKotani, S. Comparative studies on the intestinal intrinsic reflexes in rabbits, guinea pigs and dogs.Japanese J. Physiol. 11:205, 1961.Google Scholar
  69. 67.
    Hukuhara, T., Sumi, T., andKotani, S. The role of the ganglion cells in the small intestine taken in the intestinal intrinsic reflex.Japanese J. Physiol. 11:381, 1961.Google Scholar
  70. 68.
    Hukuhara, T. Yamagami, M., andNakayama, S. On the intestinal intrinsic reflexes.Japanese J. Physiol. 8: 9, 1958.Google Scholar
  71. 69.
    Hunt, F. N. Gastric emptying and secretion in man.Physiol. Rev. 39:491, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 70.
    Ichikawa, S., andBozler, E. Monophasic and diphasic action potentials of the stomach.Am. J. Physiol. 182: 92, 1955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 71.
    Igco, A. Tension receptors in the stomach and urinary bladder.J. Physiol. 128:596, 1955.Google Scholar
  74. 72.
    Iggo, A. Gastrointestinal tension receptors with unmyelinated afferent fibres in the vagus of the cat.Quart. J. Exper. Physiol. 42:130, 1957.Google Scholar
  75. 73.
    Ingelfinger, F. J. Esophageal motility.Physiol. Rev. 38:533, 1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 74.
    Jacory, N. I., Bennett, D. R., andBass, P. In vivo strain gauge method for measurement of contractions and tone of gastrointestinal longitudinal and circular muscle.Fed. Proc. 21: 261, 1962.Google Scholar
  77. 75.
    Kosterlitz, H. W., andRobinson, J. A. Mechanism of the contraction of the longitudinal muscle of the isolated guinea-pig ileum, caused by raising the pressure in the lumen.Proc. Physiol. Soc, J. Physiol. 128:18, 1955.Google Scholar
  78. 76.
    Kosterlitz, H. W., andRobinson, J. A. The inhibitory action of morphine on the contraction of the longitudinal muscle coat of the isolated guinea pig ileum.Brit. J. Pharmacol. 13: 296, 1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 77.
    Kosterlitz, H. W., andRobinson, J. A. Reflex contractions of the longitudinal muscle coat of the isolated guinea pig ileum.J. Physiol. 146:369, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 78.
    Lasser, E. C, andRigler, L. G. Observations on the structure and function of the ileocecal valve.Radiology 63: 176, 1954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 79.
    Leaming, D. B., andCauna, N. A qualitative and quantitative study of the myen-teric plexus of the small intestine of the cat.J. Anat. 95:160, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 80.
    Lee, C. Y. The effect of stimulation of extrinsic nerves on peristalsis and on the release of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the large intestine of the guinea-pig and of the rabbit.J. Physiol. 152:408, 1960.Google Scholar
  83. 81.
    Lewis, G. P. The inhibition by morphine of the action of smooth muscle stimulants on the guinea-pig intestine.Brit. J. Pharmacol. 15:425, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 82.
    Ling, G., andGerard, R. W. The normal membrane potential of frog sartorius fiber.J. Cell. & Comp. Physiol. 34:383, 1949.Google Scholar
  85. 83.
    Louckes, H. S., Quigley, J. P., andKersey, J. Inductograph method for recording muscle activity, especially pyloric sphincter physiology.Am. J. Physiol. 199:301, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 84.
    Medakovie, M. The action of morphine and morphine-like analgesics applied on the intraluminally-peristaltic reflex of the isolated guinea pig ileum.J. Pharm. & Pharmacol. 11:43, 1959.Google Scholar
  87. 85.
    Milton, G. W., andSmith, W. M. The pacemaking area of the duodenum.J. Physiol. 132:100, 1956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 86.
    Muren, A. The effect of vagotomy on gastric motor responses to drugs in dogs.Acta physiol. scandinav. 38: 399, 1957.Google Scholar
  89. 87.
    Nagai, T., andProsser, C. L. Electrical pacemakers of circular smooth muscle of cat intestine.Fed. Proc. 21:317, 1962.Google Scholar
  90. 88.
    Nakayama, S., andNanba, R. Electrophysiological studies on the intestinal intrinsic reflex.Japanese J. Physiol. 11:499, 1961.Google Scholar
  91. 89.
    Paintai., A. S. The response of gastric stretch receptors and certain other abdominal and thoracic vagal receptors to some drugs.J. Physiol. 126:271, 1954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 90.
    Pernow, B. Studies on substance P. Purification, occurrence and biological actions.Acta physiol. scandinav, 29: 1, 1953.Google Scholar
  93. 90a.
    Prosser, C. L. “Comparative Physiology of Activation of Muscles with Particular Attention to Smooth Muscles.” InStructure and Function of Muscles. Vol. II. Biochemistry and Physiology. G. H. Bourne. Ed. Acad. Press, New York, 1960.Google Scholar
  94. 91.
    Prosser, C. L., Burnstock, G., andKahn, J. Conduction in smooth muscle: comparative structural properties.Am. J. Physiol. 199:545, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 92.
    Richter, C. P. Action currents from the stomach.Am. J. Physiol. 67:612, 1924.Google Scholar
  96. 93.
    Sato, A. Electrophysiological studies on the working mechanism of muscle walls of the stomach.Japanese J. Physiol. 10:359, 1960.Google Scholar
  97. 94.
    Schaumann, O., Jochum, K., andSchmidt, H. Analgetika und Darmotorik. III. Zum Mechanisms der Peristaltik.Arch. exper. Path. u. Pharmakol. 219:302, 1953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 95.
    Schou, M. Biology and pharmacology of the lithium ion.Pharmacol. Rev. 9:17, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 95a.
    Stämpfli, R. A new method of measuring membrane potentials with external electrodes.Experentia 10:508, 1954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 95b.
    Stark, S. Diagnostic implication of the ileocecal valve.Gastroenterology 35:485,1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 96.
    Tasaki, I. The strength duration relation of the normal polarized and narcotized nerve fibre.Am. J. Physiol. 125: 376, 1939.Google Scholar
  102. 97.
    Taylor, F. B., andAlvarez, W. C. The effect of temperature on the rhythm of excised segments from different parts of the intestine.Am. J. Physiol. 44:344, 1917.Google Scholar
  103. 98.
    Taxi, J. Cytologie-sue l'innervation des fibres musculaires lisses de l'intestin de Souris.Comp. rend. Acad. Sciences 252:331, 1961.Google Scholar
  104. 99.
    Thomas, E. J. Mechanics and regulation of gastric emptying.Physiol. Rev. 36:453, 1957.Google Scholar
  105. 100.
    Vogt, W. The chemical nature of Darmstoff.J. Physiol. 137:154, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 101.
    Vantrappen, G., Texter, E. C., Barborka, C. J., andVandenbroucke, J. The closing mechanism at the gastroesophageal junction.Am. J. Med. 28:564, 1960.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 102.
    Wenger, M. A., Engel, B. T., Clemens, T. L., andCullen, T. D. Stomach motility in man as recorded by the magnetometer method.Gastroenterology 41:579, 1961.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Hoeber Medical Division of Harper & Row, Publishers 1963

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edwin E. Daniel
    • 1
  • Kent M. Chapman
    • 1
  1. 1.From the Departments of Pharmacology and Physiology, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

Personalised recommendations