The American Journal of Digestive Diseases

, Volume 17, Issue 12, pp 1075–1088 | Cite as

Electric and motor activity of innervated and vagally denervated feline esophagus

  • Masaaki Ueda
  • Jerry F. Schlegel
  • Charles F. Code


Motor and electric activities of the feline esophagus were detected before and after vagotomy by use of intraluminal pressure detectors and chronically implanted platinum electrodes. These were placed in the midesophagus (E1), at the three-quarter point (E2) and in the lower 2 cm (E3). Both inner and outer layers of muscle were skeletal at E1 and smooth at E3, whereas at E2 the outer layer was predominantly skeletal and the inner predominantly smooth. Before vagotomy, contractions of the skeletal muscle fibers of the midesophagus were associated with pressure changes and action potentials of lesser amplitude, briefer duration and faster propagation than those of the smooth muscle fibers of the lower esophagus. The frequency of the skeletal muscle action potentials was greater than 25 cycles per second (cps), and that of the smooth muscle action potentials was less than 25 cps. The first recorded event during peristalsis was orad movement of the electrodes due to contraction of longitudinal fibers. After vagotomy, action potentials occurred with nearly every stimulation, but the incidence of intraluminal pressure increases was reduced. Repetitive responses were common. Action potentials with frequencies faster than 25 cps were eliminated in the lower quarter of the esophagus were orad movement of electrodes was also abolished owing to paralysis of longitudinal muscle fibers. The incidence of peristalsis was reduced during the first month after vagotomy to between 33 and 44% of responses, but thereafter its occurrence improved to 40 to 80% of responses. The predominant electromotor features of the period after vagotomy were persistent weakness, incoordination and repetitive responses in the lower esophagus, which prevented normal emptying of the organ.


Outer Layer Longitudinal Muscle Skeletal Muscle Fiber Intraluminal Pressure Lower Esophagus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Hellemans J, Vantrappen G: Electromyographic studies on canine esophageal motility. Am J Dig Dis 12:1240–1255, 1967CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hellemans J, Vantrappen G, Valembois P, et al: Electrical activity of striated and smooth muscle of the esophagus. Am J Dig Dis 13:320–334, 1968CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Arimori M, Code CF, Schlegel JF, et al: Electrical activity of the canine esophagus and gastroesophageal sphincter: its relation to intraluminal pressure and movement of material. Am J Dig Dis 15:191–208, 1970CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Miller ME: Guide to the Dissection of the Dog. Third edition. Ann Arbor, Edwards Brothers, Inc, 1952Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mann CV, Shorter RG: Structure of the canine esophagus and its sphincters. J Surg Res 4:160–163, 1964Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Inouye T: Electromyographic investigation of the esophagus in animals. Laryngoscope 76:1502–1519, 1966PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bremner CG, Shorter RG, Ellis FH Jr: Anatomy of feline esophagus with special reference to its muscular wall and phrenoesophageal membrane. J Surg Res 10:327–331, 1970CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zeller W, Burget GE: A study of the cardia. Am J Dig Dis 4:113–120, 1937Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Carveth SW, Schlegel JF, Code CF, et al: Esophageal motility after vagotomy, phrenocotomy, myotomy and myomectomy in dogs. Surg Gynecol Obstet 114:31–42, 1962PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Allen GL, Poole EW, Code CF: Relationships between electrical activities of antrum and duodenum. Am J Physiol 207:906–910, 1964PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lambert EH: Strain gauges: resistance wire, Medical Physics (Vol 2). Edited by O Glasser. Chicago, Year Book Medical Publishers, Inc, 1950, pp 1090–1098Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Code CF, Schlegel JF: Motor action of the esophagus and its sphincters, Handbook of Physiology (Vol 4). Section 6: Alimentary Canal. Edited by CF Code, W Heidel. Washington DC, American Physiological Society, 1968, pp 1821–1839Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ingelfinger F: Esophageal motility. Physiol Rev 38:533–584, 1958PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Garrett JM, Schlegel JF, Code CF: Effect of quinidine on electrical and motor activity of canine small bowel. Gut 7:562–565, 1966PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Roman C, Orengo M, Tieffenbach L: Étude électromyographique du muscle lisse oesophagien chez le chat. J Physiol (Paris) 61:Suppl 2:390, 1969Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gonella J: Étude électrophysiologique de la motricite intestinale. Thése, Marseille, 1967Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Christensen J, Lund GF: Esophageal responses to distension and electrical stimulation. J Clin Invest 48:408–419, 1969PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cannon WB: Oesophageal peristalsis after bilateral vagotomy. Am J Physiol 19:436–444, 1907Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Burgess JN, Schlegel JF, Ellis FH Jr: The effect of denervation on feline esophageal function and morphology. J Surg Res 12:24–33, 1972CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Harper & Row, Publishers, Incorporated 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masaaki Ueda
    • 1
  • Jerry F. Schlegel
    • 1
  • Charles F. Code
    • 1
  1. 1.From the Mayo Clinic and Mayo FoundationRochester

Personalised recommendations