Advertisement

Journal of Business and Psychology

, Volume 9, Issue 2, pp 137–157 | Cite as

Rewards and organizational commitment across structural characteristics: A meta-analysis

  • Aaron Cohen
  • Urs E. Gattiker
Full Articles

Abstract

This article uses meta-analysis to summarize previous empirical studies which examine the relationship between actual income/pay satisfaction and organizational commitment (OC) across different structural settings. Twenty-one studies with correlational data on the relationship between OC and income, and 27 studies dealing with OC and pay satisfaction are examined; these studies include 23 and 31 independent samples, respectively. The findings reveal a moderator effect related to type of occupation in the OC-income relationship, and to sector in the OC-pay satisfaction relationship. The findings also show the moderating effect of measurement of OC on pay satisfaction. Theoretical and methodological considerations pertaining to the OC-rewards relationship are discussed. Directions for future research and practical implications are indicated.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Angle, H. L., & Perry, J. L. (1981). Organizational commitment and organizational effectiveness: An empirical assessment.Administrative Science Quarterly, 26, 1–14.Google Scholar
  2. Becker, H. S. (1960). Notes on the concept of commitment.American Journal of Sociology, 66, 32–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cohen, A. (1991). Career stage as a moderator of the relationship between organizational commitment and its outcomes: A meta-analysis.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 64, 253–268.Google Scholar
  4. Cohen, A., & Lowenberg, G. (1990) A reexamination of the side-bet theory as applied to organizational commitment: A meta-analysis,Human Relations, 43, 1015–1050.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Greenberg, J. (1982). Approaching equity and inequity in groups and organizations. In J. Greenberg & R. L. Cohen (Eds.),Equality and justice in social behavior (pp. 389–435). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  6. Greenberg, J. (1990). Organizational justice: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow.Journal of Management, 16, 399–432.Google Scholar
  7. Guzzo, R., Jackson, S.E., & Katzell, R.A. (1987). Meta-Analysis Analysis, In Cummings, L.L., & Staw, B.M. (Eds.)Research in Organizational Behavior, 9, 407–442. Connecticut: JAI Press Inc.Google Scholar
  8. Hodson, R., & Sullivan, T. A. (1985). Totem or tyrant? Monopoly, regional and local sector effects on worker commitment.Social Forces, 63, 716–731.Google Scholar
  9. Hundley, G. (1991). Public- and private-sector occupational pay structures.Industrial Relations, 30, 417–434.Google Scholar
  10. Hunter, J. E., Schmidt, F. L., & Jackson, G. B. (1982).Meta-analysis: Cumulating research findings across studies. Beverly Hills, California: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  11. Hunter, J.E., & Schmidt, F.L. (1990).Methods of Meta-Analysis: Correcting error and bias in research findings. Beverly Hills, California: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  12. Idson, T. L., & Feaster, D. J. (1990). A selectivity model of employer-size wage differentials.Journal of Labor Economics, 8, 99–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mandler, G. (1982). The structure of value: Accounting for taste. In M. S. Clark & S. T. Fiske (Eds.),Affect and cognition (pp. 3–36). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  14. Mathieu, J. E., & Zajac, D. M. (1990). A review and meta-analysis of the antecedents, correlates and consequences of organizational commitment.Psychological Bulletin, 108, 171–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Moulton, B. R. (1990). A reexamination of the federal-private wage differential in the United States.Journal of Labor Economics, 8, 270–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mowday, R. T., Porter, L. M., & Steers, R. M. (1982).Employee organizational linkage. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  17. Nollen, S. D., & Gaertner, K. N. (1991). Effects of skill and attitudes on employee performance and earnings.Industrial Relations, 30, 435–455.Google Scholar
  18. Oliver, N. (1990). Rewards, investments, alternatives and organizational commitment: Empirical evidence and theoretical development.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 19–31.Google Scholar
  19. Pearlman, K., & Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1980). Validity generalization results for tests used to predict training success and job proficiency in clerical occupations.Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 373–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pfeffer, J., & Cohen, Y. (1989). Determinants of internal labor markets in organizations.Administrative Science Quarterly, 29, 550–572.Google Scholar
  21. Porter, L. W., Steers, R. M., Mowday, R. T., & Boulian, P. V. (1974). Organizational commitment, job satisfaction and turnover among psychiatric technicians.Journal of Applied Psychology, 59, 603–609.Google Scholar
  22. Ritzer, G., & Trice, H. M. (1969). An empirical study of Howard Becker's side-bet theory.Social Forces, 47, 475–479.Google Scholar
  23. Salancik, G. R. (1977(A)). Commitment and the control of organizational behavior and belief. In B. M. Staw, & G. R. Salancik (Eds.),New Directions in Organizational Behavior (pp. 1–54). Chicago, Ill.: St. Clair Press.Google Scholar
  24. Salancik, G. R. (1977(B)). Commitment is too easy.Organizational Dynamics, 6, 62–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Schmidt, F. L., Hunter, J. E., & Raju, N.S. (1988). Validity generalization and situational specificity: A second look at the 75% rule and the Fisher's z transformation.Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 665–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Smith, P.C., Kendall, L.M., & Hulin, C.L. (1969).The measurement of satisfaction in work and retirement. Rand-McNally. Chicago.Google Scholar
  27. Wiener, Y., & Vardi, Y. (1980). Relationships between job, organization and work outcomes: An integrative approach.Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 26, 81–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Appendix a list of the studies used in the meta analysis studies used for the variable “Income”

  1. Amernic, J. H., & Aranya, N. (1983). Organizational commitment: Testing two theories.Relations Industrielles, 38, 319–341.Google Scholar
  2. Baba, V. V., & Jamal, M. (1979). On Becker's theory of commitment: An empirical verification among blue-collar workers.Relations Industrielles, 34, 123–137.Google Scholar
  3. Baba, V. V., & Knoop, R. (1987). Organizational commitment and independence among Canadian managers.Relations Industrielles, 42, 325–343.Google Scholar
  4. Bluedorn, A. C. (1982). A unified model of turnover from organizations.Human Relations, 35, 135–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brief, A. P., Van Sell, M. & Aldag, R. J. (1978). Job scope-employee reaction relationships: Methodological considerations.Journal of Management, 4, 27–32.Google Scholar
  6. Chelte, A. E., & Tausky, C. (1986). A note on organization commitment.Work and Occupations, 13, 553–561.Google Scholar
  7. Collarelli, S.M., & Bishop, R.C. (1990). Career Commitment: Functions, correlates, and management.Group & Organization Studies, 15, 158–176.Google Scholar
  8. Glisson, C., & Durick, M. (1988). Predictors of job satisfaction and organizational commitment in human service organizations.Administrative Science Quarterly, 33, 61–81.Google Scholar
  9. Huselid, M. A. & Day, N. E. (1991). Organizational commitment, job involvement, and turnover: A substantive and methodological analysis.Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 380–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jorde-Bloom, P. (1988). Factors influencing overall job satisfaction and organizational commitment in early childhood work environments.Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 3, 107–122.Google Scholar
  11. Klein, K. J., & Hall, R. J. (1988). Correlates of employee satisfaction with stock ownership: Who likes an ESOP most?Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 630–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Koch, J. L., & Steers, R. M. (1978). Job attachment, satisfaction and turnover among public sector employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 12, 119–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Loundsbery, J.W., & Hoopes, L.L. (1986). A vacation from work: Changes in work and nonwork outcomes.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 392–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Martin, J. E., Magenau, J. M., & Peterson, M. F. (1986). Variables related to patterns of union stewards' commitment.Journal of Labor Research, 7, 323–336.Google Scholar
  15. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1988). Links between work experiences and organizational commitment during the first year of employment: A longitudinal analysis.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 61, 195–209.Google Scholar
  16. Michaels, C. E., & Spector, P. E. (1982). Causes of employee turnover: A test of the Mobley, Griffeth, Hand & Meglino model.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 53–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. O'Reilly, C. A., & Caldwell, D. (1980). Job choice: The impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on subsequent satisfaction and commitment.Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 559–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ritzer, G., & Trice, H. M. (1969). An empirical study of Howard Becker's side-bet theory.Social Forces, 47, 475–479.Google Scholar
  19. Still, L. V. (1983). Part-time versus full-time salespeople: Individual attributes, organizational commitment and work attitudes.Journal of Retailing, 59, 55–79.Google Scholar
  20. Summers, T. P. & Hendrix, W. H. (1991). Modeling the role of pay equity perceptions: A field study.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 64, 145–157.Google Scholar

Studies used for the variable “pay satisfaction”

  1. Aranya, N., Pollock, J., & Amernic, J. (1981). An examination of professional commitment in public accounting.Accounting, Organizations and Society, 6, 271–280.Google Scholar
  2. Barling, J., Wade, B., & Fullagar, C. (1990). Predicting employee commitment to company and union: Divergent models.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 49–61.Google Scholar
  3. Brief, A. P., & Aldag, R. J. (1980). Antecedents of organizational commitments among hospital nurses.Sociology of Work and Occupations, 7, 210–221.Google Scholar
  4. Bruning, S. M., & Snyder, A. R. (1983). Sex and position as predictors of organizational commitment.Academy of Management Journal, 26, 485–491.Google Scholar
  5. Chacko, T.I. (1982). Women and equal employment opportunity: Some unintended effects.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 119–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chassie, M. B., & Bhagat, R. S. (1980). Role stress in working women: Differential effect on selected organizational outcomes.Group and Organization Studies, 5, 224–233.Google Scholar
  7. Decottiis, T. A., & Summers, T. P. (1987). A path analysis of a model of the antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment.Human Relations, 40, 445–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Elloy, D. F., Everett, J.E. & Flynn, W. R. (1991). An examination of the correlates of job involvement.Group and Organization Studies, 16, 160–177.Google Scholar
  9. Ettling, J. (1990). Winning and losing with ESOPS: The design of effective employee stock ownership plans.Academy of Management Proceedings, 269–273.Google Scholar
  10. Griffeth, R.W., Hom, P.W., DeNisi, A.S. & Kirchner, W.K. (1985). A comparison of different methods of clustering countries on the basis of employee attitudes.Human Relations, 38, 813–840.Google Scholar
  11. Hollenbeck, J. R., & Williams, C. R. (1986). Turnover functionally versus turnover frequency: A note on work attitudes and organizational effectiveness.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 606–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hom, P. W., Katerberg, R., & Hulin, C. L. (1979). Comparative examination of three approaches to the prediction of turnover.Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 280–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jauch, L.R., & Sekaran, U. (1978). Employee orientation and job satisfaction among professional employees in hospitals.Journal of Management, 4, 43–56.Google Scholar
  14. Jermier, J. M., Gaines, J., & McIntosh, N. J. (1989). Reactions to physically dangerous work: A conceptual and empirical analysis.Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10, 15–33.Google Scholar
  15. Konovsky, M. A., Folger, R. & Cropanzano, R. (1987). Relative effects of procedural and distributive justice on employee attitudes.Representative research in Social Psychology, 17, 15–24.Google Scholar
  16. Lavan, H., & Banner, D.K. (1985). The perception of role conflict, role ambiguity and organizational commitment: differences between sexes.International Journal of Manpower, 6, 32–35.Google Scholar
  17. Martelli, T. A., Waters, L. K., & Martelli, J. (1989). The police stress survey: Reliability and relation to job satisfaction and organizational commitment.Psychological Reports, 64, 267–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. McFarlin, D. B., & Frone, M. R. (1990). A two-tier wage structure in a nonunion firm.Industrial Relations, 29, 145–154.Google Scholar
  19. McGinnis, S. K., & Morrow, P. C. (1990). Job attitudes among full and part-time employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 36, 82–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Morrow, P. C., & McElroy, J. C. (1987). Work commitment and job satisfaction over three career stages.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 30, 330–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Norris, D. R., & Niebuhr, R. H. (1983). Professionalism, organizational commitment and job satisfaction in an accounting organization.Accounting, Organization and Society, 9, 49–59.Google Scholar
  22. Oliver, N. (1990). Rewards, investments, alternatives and organizational commitment: Empirical evidence and theoretical development.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 19–31.Google Scholar
  23. O'Reilly, C. A., Bretton, G. E., & Roberts, K. H. (1974). Professional employees' preference for upward mobility: An extension.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 5, 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Parasuraman, S. (1982). Predicting turnover intentions and turnover behavior: A multivariate analysis.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 21, 111–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Snyder, R. A., Verderber, K. S., & Morris, J. H. (1986). Voluntary union membership of women and men: Differences in personal characteristics, perceptions and attitudes.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 59, 205–216.Google Scholar
  26. Stone, E.F., & Porter, L.W. (1975). Job characteristics and job attitudes: A multivariate study.Journal of Applied Psychology.60, 57–64.Google Scholar
  27. Welsch, H. P., & Lavan, H. (1981). Inter-relationships between organizational commitment and job characteristics, job satisfaction, professional behavior and organizational climate.Human Relations, 34, 1079–1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wiener, Y., & Vardi, Y. (1980). Relationships between job, organization and work outcomes: An integrative approach.Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 26, 81–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Appendix a list of the studies used in the meta analysis studies used for the variable “Income”

  1. Amernic, J. H., & Aranya, N. (1983). Organizational commitment: Testing two theories.Relations Industrielles, 38, 319–341.Google Scholar
  2. Baba, V. V., & Jamal, M. (1979). On Becker's theory of commitment: An empirical verification among blue-collar workers.Relations Industrielles, 34, 123–137.Google Scholar
  3. Baba, V. V., & Knoop, R. (1987). Organizational commitment and independence among Canadian managers.Relations Industrielles, 42, 325–343.Google Scholar
  4. Bluedorn, A. C. (1982). A unified model of turnover from organizations.Human Relations, 35, 135–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brief, A. P., Van Sell, M. & Aldag, R. J. (1978). Job scope-employee reaction relationships: Methodological considerations.Journal of Management, 4, 27–32.Google Scholar
  6. Chelte, A. E., & Tausky, C. (1986). A note on organization commitment.Work and Occupations, 13, 553–561.Google Scholar
  7. Collarelli, S.M., & Bishop, R.C. (1990). Career Commitment: Functions, correlates, and management.Group & Organization Studies, 15, 158–176.Google Scholar
  8. Glisson, C., & Durick, M. (1988). Predictors of job satisfaction and organizational commitment in human service organizations.Administrative Science Quarterly, 33, 61–81.Google Scholar
  9. Huselid, M. A. & Day, N. E. (1991). Organizational commitment, job involvement, and turnover: A substantive and methodological analysis.Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 380–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jorde-Bloom, P. (1988). Factors influencing overall job satisfaction and organizational commitment in early childhood work environments.Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 3, 107–122.Google Scholar
  11. Klein, K. J., & Hall, R. J. (1988). Correlates of employee satisfaction with stock ownership: Who likes an ESOP most?Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 630–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Koch, J. L., & Steers, R. M. (1978). Job attachment, satisfaction and turnover among public sector employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 12, 119–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Loundsbery, J.W., & Hoopes, L.L. (1986). A vacation from work: Changes in work and nonwork outcomes.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 392–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Martin, J. E., Magenau, J. M., & Peterson, M. F. (1986). Variables related to patterns of union stewards' commitment.Journal of Labor Research, 7, 323–336.Google Scholar
  15. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1988). Links between work experiences and organizational commitment during the first year of employment: A longitudinal analysis.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 61, 195–209.Google Scholar
  16. Michaels, C. E., & Spector, P. E. (1982). Causes of employee turnover: A test of the Mobley, Griffeth, Hand & Meglino model.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 53–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. O'Reilly, C. A., & Caldwell, D. (1980). Job choice: The impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on subsequent satisfaction and commitment.Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 559–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ritzer, G., & Trice, H. M. (1969). An empirical study of Howard Becker's side-bet theory.Social Forces, 47, 475–479.Google Scholar
  19. Still, L. V. (1983). Part-time versus full-time salespeople: Individual attributes, organizational commitment and work attitudes.Journal of Retailing, 59, 55–79.Google Scholar
  20. Summers, T. P. & Hendrix, W. H. (1991). Modeling the role of pay equity perceptions: A field study.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 64, 145–157.Google Scholar

Studies used for the variable “pay satisfaction”

  1. Aranya, N., Pollock, J., & Amernic, J. (1981). An examination of professional commitment in public accounting.Accounting, Organizations and Society, 6, 271–280.Google Scholar
  2. Barling, J., Wade, B., & Fullagar, C. (1990). Predicting employee commitment to company and union: Divergent models.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 49–61.Google Scholar
  3. Brief, A. P., & Aldag, R. J. (1980). Antecedents of organizational commitments among hospital nurses.Sociology of Work and Occupations, 7, 210–221.Google Scholar
  4. Bruning, S. M., & Snyder, A. R. (1983). Sex and position as predictors of organizational commitment.Academy of Management Journal, 26, 485–491.Google Scholar
  5. Chacko, T.I. (1982). Women and equal employment opportunity: Some unintended effects.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 119–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chassie, M. B., & Bhagat, R. S. (1980). Role stress in working women: Differential effect on selected organizational outcomes.Group and Organization Studies, 5, 224–233.Google Scholar
  7. Decottiis, T. A., & Summers, T. P. (1987). A path analysis of a model of the antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment.Human Relations, 40, 445–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Elloy, D. F., Everett, J.E. & Flynn, W. R. (1991). An examination of the correlates of job involvement.Group and Organization Studies, 16, 160–177.Google Scholar
  9. Ettling, J. (1990). Winning and losing with ESOPS: The design of effective employee stock ownership plans.Academy of Management Proceedings, 269–273.Google Scholar
  10. Griffeth, R.W., Hom, P.W., DeNisi, A.S. & Kirchner, W.K. (1985). A comparison of different methods of clustering countries on the basis of employee attitudes.Human Relations, 38, 813–840.Google Scholar
  11. Hollenbeck, J. R., & Williams, C. R. (1986). Turnover functionally versus turnover frequency: A note on work attitudes and organizational effectiveness.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 606–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hom, P. W., Katerberg, R., & Hulin, C. L. (1979). Comparative examination of three approaches to the prediction of turnover.Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 280–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jauch, L.R., & Sekaran, U. (1978). Employee orientation and job satisfaction among professional employees in hospitals.Journal of Management, 4, 43–56.Google Scholar
  14. Jermier, J. M., Gaines, J., & McIntosh, N. J. (1989). Reactions to physically dangerous work: A conceptual and empirical analysis.Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10, 15–33.Google Scholar
  15. Konovsky, M. A., Folger, R. & Cropanzano, R. (1987). Relative effects of procedural and distributive justice on employee attitudes.Representative research in Social Psychology, 17, 15–24.Google Scholar
  16. Lavan, H., & Banner, D.K. (1985). The perception of role conflict, role ambiguity and organizational commitment: differences between sexes.International Journal of Manpower, 6, 32–35.Google Scholar
  17. Martelli, T. A., Waters, L. K., & Martelli, J. (1989). The police stress survey: Reliability and relation to job satisfaction and organizational commitment.Psychological Reports, 64, 267–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. McFarlin, D. B., & Frone, M. R. (1990). A two-tier wage structure in a nonunion firm.Industrial Relations, 29, 145–154.Google Scholar
  19. McGinnis, S. K., & Morrow, P. C. (1990). Job attitudes among full and part-time employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 36, 82–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Morrow, P. C., & McElroy, J. C. (1987). Work commitment and job satisfaction over three career stages.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 30, 330–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Norris, D. R., & Niebuhr, R. H. (1983). Professionalism, organizational commitment and job satisfaction in an accounting organization.Accounting, Organization and Society, 9, 49–59.Google Scholar
  22. Oliver, N. (1990). Rewards, investments, alternatives and organizational commitment: Empirical evidence and theoretical development.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 19–31.Google Scholar
  23. O'Reilly, C. A., Bretton, G. E., & Roberts, K. H. (1974). Professional employees' preference for upward mobility: An extension.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 5, 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Parasuraman, S. (1982). Predicting turnover intentions and turnover behavior: A multivariate analysis.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 21, 111–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Snyder, R. A., Verderber, K. S., & Morris, J. H. (1986). Voluntary union membership of women and men: Differences in personal characteristics, perceptions and attitudes.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 59, 205–216.Google Scholar
  26. Stone, E.F., & Porter, L.W. (1975). Job characteristics and job attitudes: A multivariate study.Journal of Applied Psychology.60, 57–64.Google Scholar
  27. Welsch, H. P., & Lavan, H. (1981). Inter-relationships between organizational commitment and job characteristics, job satisfaction, professional behavior and organizational climate.Human Relations, 34, 1079–1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wiener, Y., & Vardi, Y. (1980). Relationships between job, organization and work outcomes: An integrative approach.Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 26, 81–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Appendix a list of the studies used in the meta analysis studies used for the variable “Income”

  1. Amernic, J. H., & Aranya, N. (1983). Organizational commitment: Testing two theories.Relations Industrielles, 38, 319–341.Google Scholar
  2. Baba, V. V., & Jamal, M. (1979). On Becker's theory of commitment: An empirical verification among blue-collar workers.Relations Industrielles, 34, 123–137.Google Scholar
  3. Baba, V. V., & Knoop, R. (1987). Organizational commitment and independence among Canadian managers.Relations Industrielles, 42, 325–343.Google Scholar
  4. Bluedorn, A. C. (1982). A unified model of turnover from organizations.Human Relations, 35, 135–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brief, A. P., Van Sell, M. & Aldag, R. J. (1978). Job scope-employee reaction relationships: Methodological considerations.Journal of Management, 4, 27–32.Google Scholar
  6. Chelte, A. E., & Tausky, C. (1986). A note on organization commitment.Work and Occupations, 13, 553–561.Google Scholar
  7. Collarelli, S.M., & Bishop, R.C. (1990). Career Commitment: Functions, correlates, and management.Group & Organization Studies, 15, 158–176.Google Scholar
  8. Glisson, C., & Durick, M. (1988). Predictors of job satisfaction and organizational commitment in human service organizations.Administrative Science Quarterly, 33, 61–81.Google Scholar
  9. Huselid, M. A. & Day, N. E. (1991). Organizational commitment, job involvement, and turnover: A substantive and methodological analysis.Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 380–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jorde-Bloom, P. (1988). Factors influencing overall job satisfaction and organizational commitment in early childhood work environments.Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 3, 107–122.Google Scholar
  11. Klein, K. J., & Hall, R. J. (1988). Correlates of employee satisfaction with stock ownership: Who likes an ESOP most?Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 630–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Koch, J. L., & Steers, R. M. (1978). Job attachment, satisfaction and turnover among public sector employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 12, 119–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Loundsbery, J.W., & Hoopes, L.L. (1986). A vacation from work: Changes in work and nonwork outcomes.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 392–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Martin, J. E., Magenau, J. M., & Peterson, M. F. (1986). Variables related to patterns of union stewards' commitment.Journal of Labor Research, 7, 323–336.Google Scholar
  15. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1988). Links between work experiences and organizational commitment during the first year of employment: A longitudinal analysis.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 61, 195–209.Google Scholar
  16. Michaels, C. E., & Spector, P. E. (1982). Causes of employee turnover: A test of the Mobley, Griffeth, Hand & Meglino model.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 53–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. O'Reilly, C. A., & Caldwell, D. (1980). Job choice: The impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on subsequent satisfaction and commitment.Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 559–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ritzer, G., & Trice, H. M. (1969). An empirical study of Howard Becker's side-bet theory.Social Forces, 47, 475–479.Google Scholar
  19. Still, L. V. (1983). Part-time versus full-time salespeople: Individual attributes, organizational commitment and work attitudes.Journal of Retailing, 59, 55–79.Google Scholar
  20. Summers, T. P. & Hendrix, W. H. (1991). Modeling the role of pay equity perceptions: A field study.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 64, 145–157.Google Scholar

Studies used for the variable “pay satisfaction”

  1. Aranya, N., Pollock, J., & Amernic, J. (1981). An examination of professional commitment in public accounting.Accounting, Organizations and Society, 6, 271–280.Google Scholar
  2. Barling, J., Wade, B., & Fullagar, C. (1990). Predicting employee commitment to company and union: Divergent models.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 49–61.Google Scholar
  3. Brief, A. P., & Aldag, R. J. (1980). Antecedents of organizational commitments among hospital nurses.Sociology of Work and Occupations, 7, 210–221.Google Scholar
  4. Bruning, S. M., & Snyder, A. R. (1983). Sex and position as predictors of organizational commitment.Academy of Management Journal, 26, 485–491.Google Scholar
  5. Chacko, T.I. (1982). Women and equal employment opportunity: Some unintended effects.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 119–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chassie, M. B., & Bhagat, R. S. (1980). Role stress in working women: Differential effect on selected organizational outcomes.Group and Organization Studies, 5, 224–233.Google Scholar
  7. Decottiis, T. A., & Summers, T. P. (1987). A path analysis of a model of the antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment.Human Relations, 40, 445–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Elloy, D. F., Everett, J.E. & Flynn, W. R. (1991). An examination of the correlates of job involvement.Group and Organization Studies, 16, 160–177.Google Scholar
  9. Ettling, J. (1990). Winning and losing with ESOPS: The design of effective employee stock ownership plans.Academy of Management Proceedings, 269–273.Google Scholar
  10. Griffeth, R.W., Hom, P.W., DeNisi, A.S. & Kirchner, W.K. (1985). A comparison of different methods of clustering countries on the basis of employee attitudes.Human Relations, 38, 813–840.Google Scholar
  11. Hollenbeck, J. R., & Williams, C. R. (1986). Turnover functionally versus turnover frequency: A note on work attitudes and organizational effectiveness.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 606–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hom, P. W., Katerberg, R., & Hulin, C. L. (1979). Comparative examination of three approaches to the prediction of turnover.Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 280–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jauch, L.R., & Sekaran, U. (1978). Employee orientation and job satisfaction among professional employees in hospitals.Journal of Management, 4, 43–56.Google Scholar
  14. Jermier, J. M., Gaines, J., & McIntosh, N. J. (1989). Reactions to physically dangerous work: A conceptual and empirical analysis.Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10, 15–33.Google Scholar
  15. Konovsky, M. A., Folger, R. & Cropanzano, R. (1987). Relative effects of procedural and distributive justice on employee attitudes.Representative research in Social Psychology, 17, 15–24.Google Scholar
  16. Lavan, H., & Banner, D.K. (1985). The perception of role conflict, role ambiguity and organizational commitment: differences between sexes.International Journal of Manpower, 6, 32–35.Google Scholar
  17. Martelli, T. A., Waters, L. K., & Martelli, J. (1989). The police stress survey: Reliability and relation to job satisfaction and organizational commitment.Psychological Reports, 64, 267–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. McFarlin, D. B., & Frone, M. R. (1990). A two-tier wage structure in a nonunion firm.Industrial Relations, 29, 145–154.Google Scholar
  19. McGinnis, S. K., & Morrow, P. C. (1990). Job attitudes among full and part-time employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 36, 82–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Morrow, P. C., & McElroy, J. C. (1987). Work commitment and job satisfaction over three career stages.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 30, 330–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Norris, D. R., & Niebuhr, R. H. (1983). Professionalism, organizational commitment and job satisfaction in an accounting organization.Accounting, Organization and Society, 9, 49–59.Google Scholar
  22. Oliver, N. (1990). Rewards, investments, alternatives and organizational commitment: Empirical evidence and theoretical development.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 19–31.Google Scholar
  23. O'Reilly, C. A., Bretton, G. E., & Roberts, K. H. (1974). Professional employees' preference for upward mobility: An extension.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 5, 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Parasuraman, S. (1982). Predicting turnover intentions and turnover behavior: A multivariate analysis.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 21, 111–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Snyder, R. A., Verderber, K. S., & Morris, J. H. (1986). Voluntary union membership of women and men: Differences in personal characteristics, perceptions and attitudes.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 59, 205–216.Google Scholar
  26. Stone, E.F., & Porter, L.W. (1975). Job characteristics and job attitudes: A multivariate study.Journal of Applied Psychology.60, 57–64.Google Scholar
  27. Welsch, H. P., & Lavan, H. (1981). Inter-relationships between organizational commitment and job characteristics, job satisfaction, professional behavior and organizational climate.Human Relations, 34, 1079–1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wiener, Y., & Vardi, Y. (1980). Relationships between job, organization and work outcomes: An integrative approach.Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 26, 81–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Appendix a list of the studies used in the meta analysis studies used for the variable “Income”

  1. Amernic, J. H., & Aranya, N. (1983). Organizational commitment: Testing two theories.Relations Industrielles, 38, 319–341.Google Scholar
  2. Baba, V. V., & Jamal, M. (1979). On Becker's theory of commitment: An empirical verification among blue-collar workers.Relations Industrielles, 34, 123–137.Google Scholar
  3. Baba, V. V., & Knoop, R. (1987). Organizational commitment and independence among Canadian managers.Relations Industrielles, 42, 325–343.Google Scholar
  4. Bluedorn, A. C. (1982). A unified model of turnover from organizations.Human Relations, 35, 135–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brief, A. P., Van Sell, M. & Aldag, R. J. (1978). Job scope-employee reaction relationships: Methodological considerations.Journal of Management, 4, 27–32.Google Scholar
  6. Chelte, A. E., & Tausky, C. (1986). A note on organization commitment.Work and Occupations, 13, 553–561.Google Scholar
  7. Collarelli, S.M., & Bishop, R.C. (1990). Career Commitment: Functions, correlates, and management.Group & Organization Studies, 15, 158–176.Google Scholar
  8. Glisson, C., & Durick, M. (1988). Predictors of job satisfaction and organizational commitment in human service organizations.Administrative Science Quarterly, 33, 61–81.Google Scholar
  9. Huselid, M. A. & Day, N. E. (1991). Organizational commitment, job involvement, and turnover: A substantive and methodological analysis.Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 380–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jorde-Bloom, P. (1988). Factors influencing overall job satisfaction and organizational commitment in early childhood work environments.Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 3, 107–122.Google Scholar
  11. Klein, K. J., & Hall, R. J. (1988). Correlates of employee satisfaction with stock ownership: Who likes an ESOP most?Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 630–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Koch, J. L., & Steers, R. M. (1978). Job attachment, satisfaction and turnover among public sector employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 12, 119–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Loundsbery, J.W., & Hoopes, L.L. (1986). A vacation from work: Changes in work and nonwork outcomes.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 392–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Martin, J. E., Magenau, J. M., & Peterson, M. F. (1986). Variables related to patterns of union stewards' commitment.Journal of Labor Research, 7, 323–336.Google Scholar
  15. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1988). Links between work experiences and organizational commitment during the first year of employment: A longitudinal analysis.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 61, 195–209.Google Scholar
  16. Michaels, C. E., & Spector, P. E. (1982). Causes of employee turnover: A test of the Mobley, Griffeth, Hand & Meglino model.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 53–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. O'Reilly, C. A., & Caldwell, D. (1980). Job choice: The impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on subsequent satisfaction and commitment.Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 559–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ritzer, G., & Trice, H. M. (1969). An empirical study of Howard Becker's side-bet theory.Social Forces, 47, 475–479.Google Scholar
  19. Still, L. V. (1983). Part-time versus full-time salespeople: Individual attributes, organizational commitment and work attitudes.Journal of Retailing, 59, 55–79.Google Scholar
  20. Summers, T. P. & Hendrix, W. H. (1991). Modeling the role of pay equity perceptions: A field study.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 64, 145–157.Google Scholar

Studies used for the variable “pay satisfaction”

  1. Aranya, N., Pollock, J., & Amernic, J. (1981). An examination of professional commitment in public accounting.Accounting, Organizations and Society, 6, 271–280.Google Scholar
  2. Barling, J., Wade, B., & Fullagar, C. (1990). Predicting employee commitment to company and union: Divergent models.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 49–61.Google Scholar
  3. Brief, A. P., & Aldag, R. J. (1980). Antecedents of organizational commitments among hospital nurses.Sociology of Work and Occupations, 7, 210–221.Google Scholar
  4. Bruning, S. M., & Snyder, A. R. (1983). Sex and position as predictors of organizational commitment.Academy of Management Journal, 26, 485–491.Google Scholar
  5. Chacko, T.I. (1982). Women and equal employment opportunity: Some unintended effects.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 119–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chassie, M. B., & Bhagat, R. S. (1980). Role stress in working women: Differential effect on selected organizational outcomes.Group and Organization Studies, 5, 224–233.Google Scholar
  7. Decottiis, T. A., & Summers, T. P. (1987). A path analysis of a model of the antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment.Human Relations, 40, 445–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Elloy, D. F., Everett, J.E. & Flynn, W. R. (1991). An examination of the correlates of job involvement.Group and Organization Studies, 16, 160–177.Google Scholar
  9. Ettling, J. (1990). Winning and losing with ESOPS: The design of effective employee stock ownership plans.Academy of Management Proceedings, 269–273.Google Scholar
  10. Griffeth, R.W., Hom, P.W., DeNisi, A.S. & Kirchner, W.K. (1985). A comparison of different methods of clustering countries on the basis of employee attitudes.Human Relations, 38, 813–840.Google Scholar
  11. Hollenbeck, J. R., & Williams, C. R. (1986). Turnover functionally versus turnover frequency: A note on work attitudes and organizational effectiveness.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 606–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hom, P. W., Katerberg, R., & Hulin, C. L. (1979). Comparative examination of three approaches to the prediction of turnover.Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 280–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jauch, L.R., & Sekaran, U. (1978). Employee orientation and job satisfaction among professional employees in hospitals.Journal of Management, 4, 43–56.Google Scholar
  14. Jermier, J. M., Gaines, J., & McIntosh, N. J. (1989). Reactions to physically dangerous work: A conceptual and empirical analysis.Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10, 15–33.Google Scholar
  15. Konovsky, M. A., Folger, R. & Cropanzano, R. (1987). Relative effects of procedural and distributive justice on employee attitudes.Representative research in Social Psychology, 17, 15–24.Google Scholar
  16. Lavan, H., & Banner, D.K. (1985). The perception of role conflict, role ambiguity and organizational commitment: differences between sexes.International Journal of Manpower, 6, 32–35.Google Scholar
  17. Martelli, T. A., Waters, L. K., & Martelli, J. (1989). The police stress survey: Reliability and relation to job satisfaction and organizational commitment.Psychological Reports, 64, 267–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. McFarlin, D. B., & Frone, M. R. (1990). A two-tier wage structure in a nonunion firm.Industrial Relations, 29, 145–154.Google Scholar
  19. McGinnis, S. K., & Morrow, P. C. (1990). Job attitudes among full and part-time employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 36, 82–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Morrow, P. C., & McElroy, J. C. (1987). Work commitment and job satisfaction over three career stages.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 30, 330–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Norris, D. R., & Niebuhr, R. H. (1983). Professionalism, organizational commitment and job satisfaction in an accounting organization.Accounting, Organization and Society, 9, 49–59.Google Scholar
  22. Oliver, N. (1990). Rewards, investments, alternatives and organizational commitment: Empirical evidence and theoretical development.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 19–31.Google Scholar
  23. O'Reilly, C. A., Bretton, G. E., & Roberts, K. H. (1974). Professional employees' preference for upward mobility: An extension.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 5, 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Parasuraman, S. (1982). Predicting turnover intentions and turnover behavior: A multivariate analysis.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 21, 111–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Snyder, R. A., Verderber, K. S., & Morris, J. H. (1986). Voluntary union membership of women and men: Differences in personal characteristics, perceptions and attitudes.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 59, 205–216.Google Scholar
  26. Stone, E.F., & Porter, L.W. (1975). Job characteristics and job attitudes: A multivariate study.Journal of Applied Psychology.60, 57–64.Google Scholar
  27. Welsch, H. P., & Lavan, H. (1981). Inter-relationships between organizational commitment and job characteristics, job satisfaction, professional behavior and organizational climate.Human Relations, 34, 1079–1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wiener, Y., & Vardi, Y. (1980). Relationships between job, organization and work outcomes: An integrative approach.Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 26, 81–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Appendix a list of the studies used in the meta analysis studies used for the variable “Income”

  1. Amernic, J. H., & Aranya, N. (1983). Organizational commitment: Testing two theories.Relations Industrielles, 38, 319–341.Google Scholar
  2. Baba, V. V., & Jamal, M. (1979). On Becker's theory of commitment: An empirical verification among blue-collar workers.Relations Industrielles, 34, 123–137.Google Scholar
  3. Baba, V. V., & Knoop, R. (1987). Organizational commitment and independence among Canadian managers.Relations Industrielles, 42, 325–343.Google Scholar
  4. Bluedorn, A. C. (1982). A unified model of turnover from organizations.Human Relations, 35, 135–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brief, A. P., Van Sell, M. & Aldag, R. J. (1978). Job scope-employee reaction relationships: Methodological considerations.Journal of Management, 4, 27–32.Google Scholar
  6. Chelte, A. E., & Tausky, C. (1986). A note on organization commitment.Work and Occupations, 13, 553–561.Google Scholar
  7. Collarelli, S.M., & Bishop, R.C. (1990). Career Commitment: Functions, correlates, and management.Group & Organization Studies, 15, 158–176.Google Scholar
  8. Glisson, C., & Durick, M. (1988). Predictors of job satisfaction and organizational commitment in human service organizations.Administrative Science Quarterly, 33, 61–81.Google Scholar
  9. Huselid, M. A. & Day, N. E. (1991). Organizational commitment, job involvement, and turnover: A substantive and methodological analysis.Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 380–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jorde-Bloom, P. (1988). Factors influencing overall job satisfaction and organizational commitment in early childhood work environments.Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 3, 107–122.Google Scholar
  11. Klein, K. J., & Hall, R. J. (1988). Correlates of employee satisfaction with stock ownership: Who likes an ESOP most?Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 630–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Koch, J. L., & Steers, R. M. (1978). Job attachment, satisfaction and turnover among public sector employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 12, 119–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Loundsbery, J.W., & Hoopes, L.L. (1986). A vacation from work: Changes in work and nonwork outcomes.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 392–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Martin, J. E., Magenau, J. M., & Peterson, M. F. (1986). Variables related to patterns of union stewards' commitment.Journal of Labor Research, 7, 323–336.Google Scholar
  15. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1988). Links between work experiences and organizational commitment during the first year of employment: A longitudinal analysis.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 61, 195–209.Google Scholar
  16. Michaels, C. E., & Spector, P. E. (1982). Causes of employee turnover: A test of the Mobley, Griffeth, Hand & Meglino model.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 53–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. O'Reilly, C. A., & Caldwell, D. (1980). Job choice: The impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on subsequent satisfaction and commitment.Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 559–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ritzer, G., & Trice, H. M. (1969). An empirical study of Howard Becker's side-bet theory.Social Forces, 47, 475–479.Google Scholar
  19. Still, L. V. (1983). Part-time versus full-time salespeople: Individual attributes, organizational commitment and work attitudes.Journal of Retailing, 59, 55–79.Google Scholar
  20. Summers, T. P. & Hendrix, W. H. (1991). Modeling the role of pay equity perceptions: A field study.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 64, 145–157.Google Scholar

Studies used for the variable “pay satisfaction”

  1. Aranya, N., Pollock, J., & Amernic, J. (1981). An examination of professional commitment in public accounting.Accounting, Organizations and Society, 6, 271–280.Google Scholar
  2. Barling, J., Wade, B., & Fullagar, C. (1990). Predicting employee commitment to company and union: Divergent models.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 49–61.Google Scholar
  3. Brief, A. P., & Aldag, R. J. (1980). Antecedents of organizational commitments among hospital nurses.Sociology of Work and Occupations, 7, 210–221.Google Scholar
  4. Bruning, S. M., & Snyder, A. R. (1983). Sex and position as predictors of organizational commitment.Academy of Management Journal, 26, 485–491.Google Scholar
  5. Chacko, T.I. (1982). Women and equal employment opportunity: Some unintended effects.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 119–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chassie, M. B., & Bhagat, R. S. (1980). Role stress in working women: Differential effect on selected organizational outcomes.Group and Organization Studies, 5, 224–233.Google Scholar
  7. Decottiis, T. A., & Summers, T. P. (1987). A path analysis of a model of the antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment.Human Relations, 40, 445–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Elloy, D. F., Everett, J.E. & Flynn, W. R. (1991). An examination of the correlates of job involvement.Group and Organization Studies, 16, 160–177.Google Scholar
  9. Ettling, J. (1990). Winning and losing with ESOPS: The design of effective employee stock ownership plans.Academy of Management Proceedings, 269–273.Google Scholar
  10. Griffeth, R.W., Hom, P.W., DeNisi, A.S. & Kirchner, W.K. (1985). A comparison of different methods of clustering countries on the basis of employee attitudes.Human Relations, 38, 813–840.Google Scholar
  11. Hollenbeck, J. R., & Williams, C. R. (1986). Turnover functionally versus turnover frequency: A note on work attitudes and organizational effectiveness.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 606–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hom, P. W., Katerberg, R., & Hulin, C. L. (1979). Comparative examination of three approaches to the prediction of turnover.Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 280–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jauch, L.R., & Sekaran, U. (1978). Employee orientation and job satisfaction among professional employees in hospitals.Journal of Management, 4, 43–56.Google Scholar
  14. Jermier, J. M., Gaines, J., & McIntosh, N. J. (1989). Reactions to physically dangerous work: A conceptual and empirical analysis.Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10, 15–33.Google Scholar
  15. Konovsky, M. A., Folger, R. & Cropanzano, R. (1987). Relative effects of procedural and distributive justice on employee attitudes.Representative research in Social Psychology, 17, 15–24.Google Scholar
  16. Lavan, H., & Banner, D.K. (1985). The perception of role conflict, role ambiguity and organizational commitment: differences between sexes.International Journal of Manpower, 6, 32–35.Google Scholar
  17. Martelli, T. A., Waters, L. K., & Martelli, J. (1989). The police stress survey: Reliability and relation to job satisfaction and organizational commitment.Psychological Reports, 64, 267–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. McFarlin, D. B., & Frone, M. R. (1990). A two-tier wage structure in a nonunion firm.Industrial Relations, 29, 145–154.Google Scholar
  19. McGinnis, S. K., & Morrow, P. C. (1990). Job attitudes among full and part-time employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 36, 82–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Morrow, P. C., & McElroy, J. C. (1987). Work commitment and job satisfaction over three career stages.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 30, 330–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Norris, D. R., & Niebuhr, R. H. (1983). Professionalism, organizational commitment and job satisfaction in an accounting organization.Accounting, Organization and Society, 9, 49–59.Google Scholar
  22. Oliver, N. (1990). Rewards, investments, alternatives and organizational commitment: Empirical evidence and theoretical development.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 19–31.Google Scholar
  23. O'Reilly, C. A., Bretton, G. E., & Roberts, K. H. (1974). Professional employees' preference for upward mobility: An extension.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 5, 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Parasuraman, S. (1982). Predicting turnover intentions and turnover behavior: A multivariate analysis.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 21, 111–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Snyder, R. A., Verderber, K. S., & Morris, J. H. (1986). Voluntary union membership of women and men: Differences in personal characteristics, perceptions and attitudes.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 59, 205–216.Google Scholar
  26. Stone, E.F., & Porter, L.W. (1975). Job characteristics and job attitudes: A multivariate study.Journal of Applied Psychology.60, 57–64.Google Scholar
  27. Welsch, H. P., & Lavan, H. (1981). Inter-relationships between organizational commitment and job characteristics, job satisfaction, professional behavior and organizational climate.Human Relations, 34, 1079–1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wiener, Y., & Vardi, Y. (1980). Relationships between job, organization and work outcomes: An integrative approach.Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 26, 81–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Appendix a list of the studies used in the meta analysis studies used for the variable “Income”

  1. Amernic, J. H., & Aranya, N. (1983). Organizational commitment: Testing two theories.Relations Industrielles, 38, 319–341.Google Scholar
  2. Baba, V. V., & Jamal, M. (1979). On Becker's theory of commitment: An empirical verification among blue-collar workers.Relations Industrielles, 34, 123–137.Google Scholar
  3. Baba, V. V., & Knoop, R. (1987). Organizational commitment and independence among Canadian managers.Relations Industrielles, 42, 325–343.Google Scholar
  4. Bluedorn, A. C. (1982). A unified model of turnover from organizations.Human Relations, 35, 135–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brief, A. P., Van Sell, M. & Aldag, R. J. (1978). Job scope-employee reaction relationships: Methodological considerations.Journal of Management, 4, 27–32.Google Scholar
  6. Chelte, A. E., & Tausky, C. (1986). A note on organization commitment.Work and Occupations, 13, 553–561.Google Scholar
  7. Collarelli, S.M., & Bishop, R.C. (1990). Career Commitment: Functions, correlates, and management.Group & Organization Studies, 15, 158–176.Google Scholar
  8. Glisson, C., & Durick, M. (1988). Predictors of job satisfaction and organizational commitment in human service organizations.Administrative Science Quarterly, 33, 61–81.Google Scholar
  9. Huselid, M. A. & Day, N. E. (1991). Organizational commitment, job involvement, and turnover: A substantive and methodological analysis.Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 380–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jorde-Bloom, P. (1988). Factors influencing overall job satisfaction and organizational commitment in early childhood work environments.Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 3, 107–122.Google Scholar
  11. Klein, K. J., & Hall, R. J. (1988). Correlates of employee satisfaction with stock ownership: Who likes an ESOP most?Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 630–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Koch, J. L., & Steers, R. M. (1978). Job attachment, satisfaction and turnover among public sector employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 12, 119–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Loundsbery, J.W., & Hoopes, L.L. (1986). A vacation from work: Changes in work and nonwork outcomes.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 392–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Martin, J. E., Magenau, J. M., & Peterson, M. F. (1986). Variables related to patterns of union stewards' commitment.Journal of Labor Research, 7, 323–336.Google Scholar
  15. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1988). Links between work experiences and organizational commitment during the first year of employment: A longitudinal analysis.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 61, 195–209.Google Scholar
  16. Michaels, C. E., & Spector, P. E. (1982). Causes of employee turnover: A test of the Mobley, Griffeth, Hand & Meglino model.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 53–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. O'Reilly, C. A., & Caldwell, D. (1980). Job choice: The impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on subsequent satisfaction and commitment.Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 559–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ritzer, G., & Trice, H. M. (1969). An empirical study of Howard Becker's side-bet theory.Social Forces, 47, 475–479.Google Scholar
  19. Still, L. V. (1983). Part-time versus full-time salespeople: Individual attributes, organizational commitment and work attitudes.Journal of Retailing, 59, 55–79.Google Scholar
  20. Summers, T. P. & Hendrix, W. H. (1991). Modeling the role of pay equity perceptions: A field study.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 64, 145–157.Google Scholar

Studies used for the variable “pay satisfaction”

  1. Aranya, N., Pollock, J., & Amernic, J. (1981). An examination of professional commitment in public accounting.Accounting, Organizations and Society, 6, 271–280.Google Scholar
  2. Barling, J., Wade, B., & Fullagar, C. (1990). Predicting employee commitment to company and union: Divergent models.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 49–61.Google Scholar
  3. Brief, A. P., & Aldag, R. J. (1980). Antecedents of organizational commitments among hospital nurses.Sociology of Work and Occupations, 7, 210–221.Google Scholar
  4. Bruning, S. M., & Snyder, A. R. (1983). Sex and position as predictors of organizational commitment.Academy of Management Journal, 26, 485–491.Google Scholar
  5. Chacko, T.I. (1982). Women and equal employment opportunity: Some unintended effects.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 119–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chassie, M. B., & Bhagat, R. S. (1980). Role stress in working women: Differential effect on selected organizational outcomes.Group and Organization Studies, 5, 224–233.Google Scholar
  7. Decottiis, T. A., & Summers, T. P. (1987). A path analysis of a model of the antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment.Human Relations, 40, 445–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Elloy, D. F., Everett, J.E. & Flynn, W. R. (1991). An examination of the correlates of job involvement.Group and Organization Studies, 16, 160–177.Google Scholar
  9. Ettling, J. (1990). Winning and losing with ESOPS: The design of effective employee stock ownership plans.Academy of Management Proceedings, 269–273.Google Scholar
  10. Griffeth, R.W., Hom, P.W., DeNisi, A.S. & Kirchner, W.K. (1985). A comparison of different methods of clustering countries on the basis of employee attitudes.Human Relations, 38, 813–840.Google Scholar
  11. Hollenbeck, J. R., & Williams, C. R. (1986). Turnover functionally versus turnover frequency: A note on work attitudes and organizational effectiveness.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 606–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hom, P. W., Katerberg, R., & Hulin, C. L. (1979). Comparative examination of three approaches to the prediction of turnover.Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 280–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jauch, L.R., & Sekaran, U. (1978). Employee orientation and job satisfaction among professional employees in hospitals.Journal of Management, 4, 43–56.Google Scholar
  14. Jermier, J. M., Gaines, J., & McIntosh, N. J. (1989). Reactions to physically dangerous work: A conceptual and empirical analysis.Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10, 15–33.Google Scholar
  15. Konovsky, M. A., Folger, R. & Cropanzano, R. (1987). Relative effects of procedural and distributive justice on employee attitudes.Representative research in Social Psychology, 17, 15–24.Google Scholar
  16. Lavan, H., & Banner, D.K. (1985). The perception of role conflict, role ambiguity and organizational commitment: differences between sexes.International Journal of Manpower, 6, 32–35.Google Scholar
  17. Martelli, T. A., Waters, L. K., & Martelli, J. (1989). The police stress survey: Reliability and relation to job satisfaction and organizational commitment.Psychological Reports, 64, 267–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. McFarlin, D. B., & Frone, M. R. (1990). A two-tier wage structure in a nonunion firm.Industrial Relations, 29, 145–154.Google Scholar
  19. McGinnis, S. K., & Morrow, P. C. (1990). Job attitudes among full and part-time employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 36, 82–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Morrow, P. C., & McElroy, J. C. (1987). Work commitment and job satisfaction over three career stages.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 30, 330–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Norris, D. R., & Niebuhr, R. H. (1983). Professionalism, organizational commitment and job satisfaction in an accounting organization.Accounting, Organization and Society, 9, 49–59.Google Scholar
  22. Oliver, N. (1990). Rewards, investments, alternatives and organizational commitment: Empirical evidence and theoretical development.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 19–31.Google Scholar
  23. O'Reilly, C. A., Bretton, G. E., & Roberts, K. H. (1974). Professional employees' preference for upward mobility: An extension.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 5, 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Parasuraman, S. (1982). Predicting turnover intentions and turnover behavior: A multivariate analysis.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 21, 111–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Snyder, R. A., Verderber, K. S., & Morris, J. H. (1986). Voluntary union membership of women and men: Differences in personal characteristics, perceptions and attitudes.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 59, 205–216.Google Scholar
  26. Stone, E.F., & Porter, L.W. (1975). Job characteristics and job attitudes: A multivariate study.Journal of Applied Psychology.60, 57–64.Google Scholar
  27. Welsch, H. P., & Lavan, H. (1981). Inter-relationships between organizational commitment and job characteristics, job satisfaction, professional behavior and organizational climate.Human Relations, 34, 1079–1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wiener, Y., & Vardi, Y. (1980). Relationships between job, organization and work outcomes: An integrative approach.Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 26, 81–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Appendix a list of the studies used in the meta analysis studies used for the variable “Income”

  1. Amernic, J. H., & Aranya, N. (1983). Organizational commitment: Testing two theories.Relations Industrielles, 38, 319–341.Google Scholar
  2. Baba, V. V., & Jamal, M. (1979). On Becker's theory of commitment: An empirical verification among blue-collar workers.Relations Industrielles, 34, 123–137.Google Scholar
  3. Baba, V. V., & Knoop, R. (1987). Organizational commitment and independence among Canadian managers.Relations Industrielles, 42, 325–343.Google Scholar
  4. Bluedorn, A. C. (1982). A unified model of turnover from organizations.Human Relations, 35, 135–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brief, A. P., Van Sell, M. & Aldag, R. J. (1978). Job scope-employee reaction relationships: Methodological considerations.Journal of Management, 4, 27–32.Google Scholar
  6. Chelte, A. E., & Tausky, C. (1986). A note on organization commitment.Work and Occupations, 13, 553–561.Google Scholar
  7. Collarelli, S.M., & Bishop, R.C. (1990). Career Commitment: Functions, correlates, and management.Group & Organization Studies, 15, 158–176.Google Scholar
  8. Glisson, C., & Durick, M. (1988). Predictors of job satisfaction and organizational commitment in human service organizations.Administrative Science Quarterly, 33, 61–81.Google Scholar
  9. Huselid, M. A. & Day, N. E. (1991). Organizational commitment, job involvement, and turnover: A substantive and methodological analysis.Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 380–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jorde-Bloom, P. (1988). Factors influencing overall job satisfaction and organizational commitment in early childhood work environments.Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 3, 107–122.Google Scholar
  11. Klein, K. J., & Hall, R. J. (1988). Correlates of employee satisfaction with stock ownership: Who likes an ESOP most?Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 630–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Koch, J. L., & Steers, R. M. (1978). Job attachment, satisfaction and turnover among public sector employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 12, 119–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Loundsbery, J.W., & Hoopes, L.L. (1986). A vacation from work: Changes in work and nonwork outcomes.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 392–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Martin, J. E., Magenau, J. M., & Peterson, M. F. (1986). Variables related to patterns of union stewards' commitment.Journal of Labor Research, 7, 323–336.Google Scholar
  15. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1988). Links between work experiences and organizational commitment during the first year of employment: A longitudinal analysis.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 61, 195–209.Google Scholar
  16. Michaels, C. E., & Spector, P. E. (1982). Causes of employee turnover: A test of the Mobley, Griffeth, Hand & Meglino model.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 53–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. O'Reilly, C. A., & Caldwell, D. (1980). Job choice: The impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on subsequent satisfaction and commitment.Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 559–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ritzer, G., & Trice, H. M. (1969). An empirical study of Howard Becker's side-bet theory.Social Forces, 47, 475–479.Google Scholar
  19. Still, L. V. (1983). Part-time versus full-time salespeople: Individual attributes, organizational commitment and work attitudes.Journal of Retailing, 59, 55–79.Google Scholar
  20. Summers, T. P. & Hendrix, W. H. (1991). Modeling the role of pay equity perceptions: A field study.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 64, 145–157.Google Scholar

Studies used for the variable “pay satisfaction”

  1. Aranya, N., Pollock, J., & Amernic, J. (1981). An examination of professional commitment in public accounting.Accounting, Organizations and Society, 6, 271–280.Google Scholar
  2. Barling, J., Wade, B., & Fullagar, C. (1990). Predicting employee commitment to company and union: Divergent models.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 49–61.Google Scholar
  3. Brief, A. P., & Aldag, R. J. (1980). Antecedents of organizational commitments among hospital nurses.Sociology of Work and Occupations, 7, 210–221.Google Scholar
  4. Bruning, S. M., & Snyder, A. R. (1983). Sex and position as predictors of organizational commitment.Academy of Management Journal, 26, 485–491.Google Scholar
  5. Chacko, T.I. (1982). Women and equal employment opportunity: Some unintended effects.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 119–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chassie, M. B., & Bhagat, R. S. (1980). Role stress in working women: Differential effect on selected organizational outcomes.Group and Organization Studies, 5, 224–233.Google Scholar
  7. Decottiis, T. A., & Summers, T. P. (1987). A path analysis of a model of the antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment.Human Relations, 40, 445–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Elloy, D. F., Everett, J.E. & Flynn, W. R. (1991). An examination of the correlates of job involvement.Group and Organization Studies, 16, 160–177.Google Scholar
  9. Ettling, J. (1990). Winning and losing with ESOPS: The design of effective employee stock ownership plans.Academy of Management Proceedings, 269–273.Google Scholar
  10. Griffeth, R.W., Hom, P.W., DeNisi, A.S. & Kirchner, W.K. (1985). A comparison of different methods of clustering countries on the basis of employee attitudes.Human Relations, 38, 813–840.Google Scholar
  11. Hollenbeck, J. R., & Williams, C. R. (1986). Turnover functionally versus turnover frequency: A note on work attitudes and organizational effectiveness.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 606–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hom, P. W., Katerberg, R., & Hulin, C. L. (1979). Comparative examination of three approaches to the prediction of turnover.Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 280–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jauch, L.R., & Sekaran, U. (1978). Employee orientation and job satisfaction among professional employees in hospitals.Journal of Management, 4, 43–56.Google Scholar
  14. Jermier, J. M., Gaines, J., & McIntosh, N. J. (1989). Reactions to physically dangerous work: A conceptual and empirical analysis.Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10, 15–33.Google Scholar
  15. Konovsky, M. A., Folger, R. & Cropanzano, R. (1987). Relative effects of procedural and distributive justice on employee attitudes.Representative research in Social Psychology, 17, 15–24.Google Scholar
  16. Lavan, H., & Banner, D.K. (1985). The perception of role conflict, role ambiguity and organizational commitment: differences between sexes.International Journal of Manpower, 6, 32–35.Google Scholar
  17. Martelli, T. A., Waters, L. K., & Martelli, J. (1989). The police stress survey: Reliability and relation to job satisfaction and organizational commitment.Psychological Reports, 64, 267–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. McFarlin, D. B., & Frone, M. R. (1990). A two-tier wage structure in a nonunion firm.Industrial Relations, 29, 145–154.Google Scholar
  19. McGinnis, S. K., & Morrow, P. C. (1990). Job attitudes among full and part-time employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 36, 82–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Morrow, P. C., & McElroy, J. C. (1987). Work commitment and job satisfaction over three career stages.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 30, 330–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Norris, D. R., & Niebuhr, R. H. (1983). Professionalism, organizational commitment and job satisfaction in an accounting organization.Accounting, Organization and Society, 9, 49–59.Google Scholar
  22. Oliver, N. (1990). Rewards, investments, alternatives and organizational commitment: Empirical evidence and theoretical development.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 19–31.Google Scholar
  23. O'Reilly, C. A., Bretton, G. E., & Roberts, K. H. (1974). Professional employees' preference for upward mobility: An extension.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 5, 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Parasuraman, S. (1982). Predicting turnover intentions and turnover behavior: A multivariate analysis.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 21, 111–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Snyder, R. A., Verderber, K. S., & Morris, J. H. (1986). Voluntary union membership of women and men: Differences in personal characteristics, perceptions and attitudes.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 59, 205–216.Google Scholar
  26. Stone, E.F., & Porter, L.W. (1975). Job characteristics and job attitudes: A multivariate study.Journal of Applied Psychology.60, 57–64.Google Scholar
  27. Welsch, H. P., & Lavan, H. (1981). Inter-relationships between organizational commitment and job characteristics, job satisfaction, professional behavior and organizational climate.Human Relations, 34, 1079–1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wiener, Y., & Vardi, Y. (1980). Relationships between job, organization and work outcomes: An integrative approach.Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 26, 81–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Appendix a list of the studies used in the meta analysis studies used for the variable “Income”

  1. Amernic, J. H., & Aranya, N. (1983). Organizational commitment: Testing two theories.Relations Industrielles, 38, 319–341.Google Scholar
  2. Baba, V. V., & Jamal, M. (1979). On Becker's theory of commitment: An empirical verification among blue-collar workers.Relations Industrielles, 34, 123–137.Google Scholar
  3. Baba, V. V., & Knoop, R. (1987). Organizational commitment and independence among Canadian managers.Relations Industrielles, 42, 325–343.Google Scholar
  4. Bluedorn, A. C. (1982). A unified model of turnover from organizations.Human Relations, 35, 135–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brief, A. P., Van Sell, M. & Aldag, R. J. (1978). Job scope-employee reaction relationships: Methodological considerations.Journal of Management, 4, 27–32.Google Scholar
  6. Chelte, A. E., & Tausky, C. (1986). A note on organization commitment.Work and Occupations, 13, 553–561.Google Scholar
  7. Collarelli, S.M., & Bishop, R.C. (1990). Career Commitment: Functions, correlates, and management.Group & Organization Studies, 15, 158–176.Google Scholar
  8. Glisson, C., & Durick, M. (1988). Predictors of job satisfaction and organizational commitment in human service organizations.Administrative Science Quarterly, 33, 61–81.Google Scholar
  9. Huselid, M. A. & Day, N. E. (1991). Organizational commitment, job involvement, and turnover: A substantive and methodological analysis.Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 380–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jorde-Bloom, P. (1988). Factors influencing overall job satisfaction and organizational commitment in early childhood work environments.Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 3, 107–122.Google Scholar
  11. Klein, K. J., & Hall, R. J. (1988). Correlates of employee satisfaction with stock ownership: Who likes an ESOP most?Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 630–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Koch, J. L., & Steers, R. M. (1978). Job attachment, satisfaction and turnover among public sector employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 12, 119–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Loundsbery, J.W., & Hoopes, L.L. (1986). A vacation from work: Changes in work and nonwork outcomes.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 392–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Martin, J. E., Magenau, J. M., & Peterson, M. F. (1986). Variables related to patterns of union stewards' commitment.Journal of Labor Research, 7, 323–336.Google Scholar
  15. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1988). Links between work experiences and organizational commitment during the first year of employment: A longitudinal analysis.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 61, 195–209.Google Scholar
  16. Michaels, C. E., & Spector, P. E. (1982). Causes of employee turnover: A test of the Mobley, Griffeth, Hand & Meglino model.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 53–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. O'Reilly, C. A., & Caldwell, D. (1980). Job choice: The impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on subsequent satisfaction and commitment.Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 559–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ritzer, G., & Trice, H. M. (1969). An empirical study of Howard Becker's side-bet theory.Social Forces, 47, 475–479.Google Scholar
  19. Still, L. V. (1983). Part-time versus full-time salespeople: Individual attributes, organizational commitment and work attitudes.Journal of Retailing, 59, 55–79.Google Scholar
  20. Summers, T. P. & Hendrix, W. H. (1991). Modeling the role of pay equity perceptions: A field study.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 64, 145–157.Google Scholar

Studies used for the variable “pay satisfaction”

  1. Aranya, N., Pollock, J., & Amernic, J. (1981). An examination of professional commitment in public accounting.Accounting, Organizations and Society, 6, 271–280.Google Scholar
  2. Barling, J., Wade, B., & Fullagar, C. (1990). Predicting employee commitment to company and union: Divergent models.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 49–61.Google Scholar
  3. Brief, A. P., & Aldag, R. J. (1980). Antecedents of organizational commitments among hospital nurses.Sociology of Work and Occupations, 7, 210–221.Google Scholar
  4. Bruning, S. M., & Snyder, A. R. (1983). Sex and position as predictors of organizational commitment.Academy of Management Journal, 26, 485–491.Google Scholar
  5. Chacko, T.I. (1982). Women and equal employment opportunity: Some unintended effects.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 119–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chassie, M. B., & Bhagat, R. S. (1980). Role stress in working women: Differential effect on selected organizational outcomes.Group and Organization Studies, 5, 224–233.Google Scholar
  7. Decottiis, T. A., & Summers, T. P. (1987). A path analysis of a model of the antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment.Human Relations, 40, 445–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Elloy, D. F., Everett, J.E. & Flynn, W. R. (1991). An examination of the correlates of job involvement.Group and Organization Studies, 16, 160–177.Google Scholar
  9. Ettling, J. (1990). Winning and losing with ESOPS: The design of effective employee stock ownership plans.Academy of Management Proceedings, 269–273.Google Scholar
  10. Griffeth, R.W., Hom, P.W., DeNisi, A.S. & Kirchner, W.K. (1985). A comparison of different methods of clustering countries on the basis of employee attitudes.Human Relations, 38, 813–840.Google Scholar
  11. Hollenbeck, J. R., & Williams, C. R. (1986). Turnover functionally versus turnover frequency: A note on work attitudes and organizational effectiveness.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 606–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hom, P. W., Katerberg, R., & Hulin, C. L. (1979). Comparative examination of three approaches to the prediction of turnover.Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 280–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jauch, L.R., & Sekaran, U. (1978). Employee orientation and job satisfaction among professional employees in hospitals.Journal of Management, 4, 43–56.Google Scholar
  14. Jermier, J. M., Gaines, J., & McIntosh, N. J. (1989). Reactions to physically dangerous work: A conceptual and empirical analysis.Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10, 15–33.Google Scholar
  15. Konovsky, M. A., Folger, R. & Cropanzano, R. (1987). Relative effects of procedural and distributive justice on employee attitudes.Representative research in Social Psychology, 17, 15–24.Google Scholar
  16. Lavan, H., & Banner, D.K. (1985). The perception of role conflict, role ambiguity and organizational commitment: differences between sexes.International Journal of Manpower, 6, 32–35.Google Scholar
  17. Martelli, T. A., Waters, L. K., & Martelli, J. (1989). The police stress survey: Reliability and relation to job satisfaction and organizational commitment.Psychological Reports, 64, 267–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. McFarlin, D. B., & Frone, M. R. (1990). A two-tier wage structure in a nonunion firm.Industrial Relations, 29, 145–154.Google Scholar
  19. McGinnis, S. K., & Morrow, P. C. (1990). Job attitudes among full and part-time employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 36, 82–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Morrow, P. C., & McElroy, J. C. (1987). Work commitment and job satisfaction over three career stages.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 30, 330–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Norris, D. R., & Niebuhr, R. H. (1983). Professionalism, organizational commitment and job satisfaction in an accounting organization.Accounting, Organization and Society, 9, 49–59.Google Scholar
  22. Oliver, N. (1990). Rewards, investments, alternatives and organizational commitment: Empirical evidence and theoretical development.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 19–31.Google Scholar
  23. O'Reilly, C. A., Bretton, G. E., & Roberts, K. H. (1974). Professional employees' preference for upward mobility: An extension.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 5, 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Parasuraman, S. (1982). Predicting turnover intentions and turnover behavior: A multivariate analysis.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 21, 111–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Snyder, R. A., Verderber, K. S., & Morris, J. H. (1986). Voluntary union membership of women and men: Differences in personal characteristics, perceptions and attitudes.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 59, 205–216.Google Scholar
  26. Stone, E.F., & Porter, L.W. (1975). Job characteristics and job attitudes: A multivariate study.Journal of Applied Psychology.60, 57–64.Google Scholar
  27. Welsch, H. P., & Lavan, H. (1981). Inter-relationships between organizational commitment and job characteristics, job satisfaction, professional behavior and organizational climate.Human Relations, 34, 1079–1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wiener, Y., & Vardi, Y. (1980). Relationships between job, organization and work outcomes: An integrative approach.Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 26, 81–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Appendix a list of the studies used in the meta analysis studies used for the variable “Income”

  1. Amernic, J. H., & Aranya, N. (1983). Organizational commitment: Testing two theories.Relations Industrielles, 38, 319–341.Google Scholar
  2. Baba, V. V., & Jamal, M. (1979). On Becker's theory of commitment: An empirical verification among blue-collar workers.Relations Industrielles, 34, 123–137.Google Scholar
  3. Baba, V. V., & Knoop, R. (1987). Organizational commitment and independence among Canadian managers.Relations Industrielles, 42, 325–343.Google Scholar
  4. Bluedorn, A. C. (1982). A unified model of turnover from organizations.Human Relations, 35, 135–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brief, A. P., Van Sell, M. & Aldag, R. J. (1978). Job scope-employee reaction relationships: Methodological considerations.Journal of Management, 4, 27–32.Google Scholar
  6. Chelte, A. E., & Tausky, C. (1986). A note on organization commitment.Work and Occupations, 13, 553–561.Google Scholar
  7. Collarelli, S.M., & Bishop, R.C. (1990). Career Commitment: Functions, correlates, and management.Group & Organization Studies, 15, 158–176.Google Scholar
  8. Glisson, C., & Durick, M. (1988). Predictors of job satisfaction and organizational commitment in human service organizations.Administrative Science Quarterly, 33, 61–81.Google Scholar
  9. Huselid, M. A. & Day, N. E. (1991). Organizational commitment, job involvement, and turnover: A substantive and methodological analysis.Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 380–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jorde-Bloom, P. (1988). Factors influencing overall job satisfaction and organizational commitment in early childhood work environments.Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 3, 107–122.Google Scholar
  11. Klein, K. J., & Hall, R. J. (1988). Correlates of employee satisfaction with stock ownership: Who likes an ESOP most?Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 630–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Koch, J. L., & Steers, R. M. (1978). Job attachment, satisfaction and turnover among public sector employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 12, 119–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Loundsbery, J.W., & Hoopes, L.L. (1986). A vacation from work: Changes in work and nonwork outcomes.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 392–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Martin, J. E., Magenau, J. M., & Peterson, M. F. (1986). Variables related to patterns of union stewards' commitment.Journal of Labor Research, 7, 323–336.Google Scholar
  15. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1988). Links between work experiences and organizational commitment during the first year of employment: A longitudinal analysis.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 61, 195–209.Google Scholar
  16. Michaels, C. E., & Spector, P. E. (1982). Causes of employee turnover: A test of the Mobley, Griffeth, Hand & Meglino model.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 53–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. O'Reilly, C. A., & Caldwell, D. (1980). Job choice: The impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on subsequent satisfaction and commitment.Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 559–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ritzer, G., & Trice, H. M. (1969). An empirical study of Howard Becker's side-bet theory.Social Forces, 47, 475–479.Google Scholar
  19. Still, L. V. (1983). Part-time versus full-time salespeople: Individual attributes, organizational commitment and work attitudes.Journal of Retailing, 59, 55–79.Google Scholar
  20. Summers, T. P. & Hendrix, W. H. (1991). Modeling the role of pay equity perceptions: A field study.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 64, 145–157.Google Scholar

Studies used for the variable “pay satisfaction”

  1. Aranya, N., Pollock, J., & Amernic, J. (1981). An examination of professional commitment in public accounting.Accounting, Organizations and Society, 6, 271–280.Google Scholar
  2. Barling, J., Wade, B., & Fullagar, C. (1990). Predicting employee commitment to company and union: Divergent models.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 49–61.Google Scholar
  3. Brief, A. P., & Aldag, R. J. (1980). Antecedents of organizational commitments among hospital nurses.Sociology of Work and Occupations, 7, 210–221.Google Scholar
  4. Bruning, S. M., & Snyder, A. R. (1983). Sex and position as predictors of organizational commitment.Academy of Management Journal, 26, 485–491.Google Scholar
  5. Chacko, T.I. (1982). Women and equal employment opportunity: Some unintended effects.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 119–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chassie, M. B., & Bhagat, R. S. (1980). Role stress in working women: Differential effect on selected organizational outcomes.Group and Organization Studies, 5, 224–233.Google Scholar
  7. Decottiis, T. A., & Summers, T. P. (1987). A path analysis of a model of the antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment.Human Relations, 40, 445–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Elloy, D. F., Everett, J.E. & Flynn, W. R. (1991). An examination of the correlates of job involvement.Group and Organization Studies, 16, 160–177.Google Scholar
  9. Ettling, J. (1990). Winning and losing with ESOPS: The design of effective employee stock ownership plans.Academy of Management Proceedings, 269–273.Google Scholar
  10. Griffeth, R.W., Hom, P.W., DeNisi, A.S. & Kirchner, W.K. (1985). A comparison of different methods of clustering countries on the basis of employee attitudes.Human Relations, 38, 813–840.Google Scholar
  11. Hollenbeck, J. R., & Williams, C. R. (1986). Turnover functionally versus turnover frequency: A note on work attitudes and organizational effectiveness.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 606–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hom, P. W., Katerberg, R., & Hulin, C. L. (1979). Comparative examination of three approaches to the prediction of turnover.Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 280–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jauch, L.R., & Sekaran, U. (1978). Employee orientation and job satisfaction among professional employees in hospitals.Journal of Management, 4, 43–56.Google Scholar
  14. Jermier, J. M., Gaines, J., & McIntosh, N. J. (1989). Reactions to physically dangerous work: A conceptual and empirical analysis.Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10, 15–33.Google Scholar
  15. Konovsky, M. A., Folger, R. & Cropanzano, R. (1987). Relative effects of procedural and distributive justice on employee attitudes.Representative research in Social Psychology, 17, 15–24.Google Scholar
  16. Lavan, H., & Banner, D.K. (1985). The perception of role conflict, role ambiguity and organizational commitment: differences between sexes.International Journal of Manpower, 6, 32–35.Google Scholar
  17. Martelli, T. A., Waters, L. K., & Martelli, J. (1989). The police stress survey: Reliability and relation to job satisfaction and organizational commitment.Psychological Reports, 64, 267–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. McFarlin, D. B., & Frone, M. R. (1990). A two-tier wage structure in a nonunion firm.Industrial Relations, 29, 145–154.Google Scholar
  19. McGinnis, S. K., & Morrow, P. C. (1990). Job attitudes among full and part-time employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 36, 82–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Morrow, P. C., & McElroy, J. C. (1987). Work commitment and job satisfaction over three career stages.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 30, 330–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Norris, D. R., & Niebuhr, R. H. (1983). Professionalism, organizational commitment and job satisfaction in an accounting organization.Accounting, Organization and Society, 9, 49–59.Google Scholar
  22. Oliver, N. (1990). Rewards, investments, alternatives and organizational commitment: Empirical evidence and theoretical development.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 19–31.Google Scholar
  23. O'Reilly, C. A., Bretton, G. E., & Roberts, K. H. (1974). Professional employees' preference for upward mobility: An extension.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 5, 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Parasuraman, S. (1982). Predicting turnover intentions and turnover behavior: A multivariate analysis.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 21, 111–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Snyder, R. A., Verderber, K. S., & Morris, J. H. (1986). Voluntary union membership of women and men: Differences in personal characteristics, perceptions and attitudes.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 59, 205–216.Google Scholar
  26. Stone, E.F., & Porter, L.W. (1975). Job characteristics and job attitudes: A multivariate study.Journal of Applied Psychology.60, 57–64.Google Scholar
  27. Welsch, H. P., & Lavan, H. (1981). Inter-relationships between organizational commitment and job characteristics, job satisfaction, professional behavior and organizational climate.Human Relations, 34, 1079–1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wiener, Y., & Vardi, Y. (1980). Relationships between job, organization and work outcomes: An integrative approach.Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 26, 81–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Appendix a list of the studies used in the meta analysis studies used for the variable “Income”

  1. Amernic, J. H., & Aranya, N. (1983). Organizational commitment: Testing two theories.Relations Industrielles, 38, 319–341.Google Scholar
  2. Baba, V. V., & Jamal, M. (1979). On Becker's theory of commitment: An empirical verification among blue-collar workers.Relations Industrielles, 34, 123–137.Google Scholar
  3. Baba, V. V., & Knoop, R. (1987). Organizational commitment and independence among Canadian managers.Relations Industrielles, 42, 325–343.Google Scholar
  4. Bluedorn, A. C. (1982). A unified model of turnover from organizations.Human Relations, 35, 135–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brief, A. P., Van Sell, M. & Aldag, R. J. (1978). Job scope-employee reaction relationships: Methodological considerations.Journal of Management, 4, 27–32.Google Scholar
  6. Chelte, A. E., & Tausky, C. (1986). A note on organization commitment.Work and Occupations, 13, 553–561.Google Scholar
  7. Collarelli, S.M., & Bishop, R.C. (1990). Career Commitment: Functions, correlates, and management.Group & Organization Studies, 15, 158–176.Google Scholar
  8. Glisson, C., & Durick, M. (1988). Predictors of job satisfaction and organizational commitment in human service organizations.Administrative Science Quarterly, 33, 61–81.Google Scholar
  9. Huselid, M. A. & Day, N. E. (1991). Organizational commitment, job involvement, and turnover: A substantive and methodological analysis.Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 380–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jorde-Bloom, P. (1988). Factors influencing overall job satisfaction and organizational commitment in early childhood work environments.Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 3, 107–122.Google Scholar
  11. Klein, K. J., & Hall, R. J. (1988). Correlates of employee satisfaction with stock ownership: Who likes an ESOP most?Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 630–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Koch, J. L., & Steers, R. M. (1978). Job attachment, satisfaction and turnover among public sector employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 12, 119–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Loundsbery, J.W., & Hoopes, L.L. (1986). A vacation from work: Changes in work and nonwork outcomes.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 392–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Martin, J. E., Magenau, J. M., & Peterson, M. F. (1986). Variables related to patterns of union stewards' commitment.Journal of Labor Research, 7, 323–336.Google Scholar
  15. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1988). Links between work experiences and organizational commitment during the first year of employment: A longitudinal analysis.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 61, 195–209.Google Scholar
  16. Michaels, C. E., & Spector, P. E. (1982). Causes of employee turnover: A test of the Mobley, Griffeth, Hand & Meglino model.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 53–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. O'Reilly, C. A., & Caldwell, D. (1980). Job choice: The impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on subsequent satisfaction and commitment.Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 559–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ritzer, G., & Trice, H. M. (1969). An empirical study of Howard Becker's side-bet theory.Social Forces, 47, 475–479.Google Scholar
  19. Still, L. V. (1983). Part-time versus full-time salespeople: Individual attributes, organizational commitment and work attitudes.Journal of Retailing, 59, 55–79.Google Scholar
  20. Summers, T. P. & Hendrix, W. H. (1991). Modeling the role of pay equity perceptions: A field study.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 64, 145–157.Google Scholar

Studies used for the variable “pay satisfaction”

  1. Aranya, N., Pollock, J., & Amernic, J. (1981). An examination of professional commitment in public accounting.Accounting, Organizations and Society, 6, 271–280.Google Scholar
  2. Barling, J., Wade, B., & Fullagar, C. (1990). Predicting employee commitment to company and union: Divergent models.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 49–61.Google Scholar
  3. Brief, A. P., & Aldag, R. J. (1980). Antecedents of organizational commitments among hospital nurses.Sociology of Work and Occupations, 7, 210–221.Google Scholar
  4. Bruning, S. M., & Snyder, A. R. (1983). Sex and position as predictors of organizational commitment.Academy of Management Journal, 26, 485–491.Google Scholar
  5. Chacko, T.I. (1982). Women and equal employment opportunity: Some unintended effects.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 119–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chassie, M. B., & Bhagat, R. S. (1980). Role stress in working women: Differential effect on selected organizational outcomes.Group and Organization Studies, 5, 224–233.Google Scholar
  7. Decottiis, T. A., & Summers, T. P. (1987). A path analysis of a model of the antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment.Human Relations, 40, 445–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Elloy, D. F., Everett, J.E. & Flynn, W. R. (1991). An examination of the correlates of job involvement.Group and Organization Studies, 16, 160–177.Google Scholar
  9. Ettling, J. (1990). Winning and losing with ESOPS: The design of effective employee stock ownership plans.Academy of Management Proceedings, 269–273.Google Scholar
  10. Griffeth, R.W., Hom, P.W., DeNisi, A.S. & Kirchner, W.K. (1985). A comparison of different methods of clustering countries on the basis of employee attitudes.Human Relations, 38, 813–840.Google Scholar
  11. Hollenbeck, J. R., & Williams, C. R. (1986). Turnover functionally versus turnover frequency: A note on work attitudes and organizational effectiveness.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 606–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hom, P. W., Katerberg, R., & Hulin, C. L. (1979). Comparative examination of three approaches to the prediction of turnover.Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 280–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jauch, L.R., & Sekaran, U. (1978). Employee orientation and job satisfaction among professional employees in hospitals.Journal of Management, 4, 43–56.Google Scholar
  14. Jermier, J. M., Gaines, J., & McIntosh, N. J. (1989). Reactions to physically dangerous work: A conceptual and empirical analysis.Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10, 15–33.Google Scholar
  15. Konovsky, M. A., Folger, R. & Cropanzano, R. (1987). Relative effects of procedural and distributive justice on employee attitudes.Representative research in Social Psychology, 17, 15–24.Google Scholar
  16. Lavan, H., & Banner, D.K. (1985). The perception of role conflict, role ambiguity and organizational commitment: differences between sexes.International Journal of Manpower, 6, 32–35.Google Scholar
  17. Martelli, T. A., Waters, L. K., & Martelli, J. (1989). The police stress survey: Reliability and relation to job satisfaction and organizational commitment.Psychological Reports, 64, 267–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. McFarlin, D. B., & Frone, M. R. (1990). A two-tier wage structure in a nonunion firm.Industrial Relations, 29, 145–154.Google Scholar
  19. McGinnis, S. K., & Morrow, P. C. (1990). Job attitudes among full and part-time employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 36, 82–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Morrow, P. C., & McElroy, J. C. (1987). Work commitment and job satisfaction over three career stages.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 30, 330–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Norris, D. R., & Niebuhr, R. H. (1983). Professionalism, organizational commitment and job satisfaction in an accounting organization.Accounting, Organization and Society, 9, 49–59.Google Scholar
  22. Oliver, N. (1990). Rewards, investments, alternatives and organizational commitment: Empirical evidence and theoretical development.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 19–31.Google Scholar
  23. O'Reilly, C. A., Bretton, G. E., & Roberts, K. H. (1974). Professional employees' preference for upward mobility: An extension.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 5, 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Parasuraman, S. (1982). Predicting turnover intentions and turnover behavior: A multivariate analysis.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 21, 111–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Snyder, R. A., Verderber, K. S., & Morris, J. H. (1986). Voluntary union membership of women and men: Differences in personal characteristics, perceptions and attitudes.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 59, 205–216.Google Scholar
  26. Stone, E.F., & Porter, L.W. (1975). Job characteristics and job attitudes: A multivariate study.Journal of Applied Psychology.60, 57–64.Google Scholar
  27. Welsch, H. P., & Lavan, H. (1981). Inter-relationships between organizational commitment and job characteristics, job satisfaction, professional behavior and organizational climate.Human Relations, 34, 1079–1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wiener, Y., & Vardi, Y. (1980). Relationships between job, organization and work outcomes: An integrative approach.Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 26, 81–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Appendix a list of the studies used in the meta analysis studies used for the variable “Income”

  1. Amernic, J. H., & Aranya, N. (1983). Organizational commitment: Testing two theories.Relations Industrielles, 38, 319–341.Google Scholar
  2. Baba, V. V., & Jamal, M. (1979). On Becker's theory of commitment: An empirical verification among blue-collar workers.Relations Industrielles, 34, 123–137.Google Scholar
  3. Baba, V. V., & Knoop, R. (1987). Organizational commitment and independence among Canadian managers.Relations Industrielles, 42, 325–343.Google Scholar
  4. Bluedorn, A. C. (1982). A unified model of turnover from organizations.Human Relations, 35, 135–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brief, A. P., Van Sell, M. & Aldag, R. J. (1978). Job scope-employee reaction relationships: Methodological considerations.Journal of Management, 4, 27–32.Google Scholar
  6. Chelte, A. E., & Tausky, C. (1986). A note on organization commitment.Work and Occupations, 13, 553–561.Google Scholar
  7. Collarelli, S.M., & Bishop, R.C. (1990). Career Commitment: Functions, correlates, and management.Group & Organization Studies, 15, 158–176.Google Scholar
  8. Glisson, C., & Durick, M. (1988). Predictors of job satisfaction and organizational commitment in human service organizations.Administrative Science Quarterly, 33, 61–81.Google Scholar
  9. Huselid, M. A. & Day, N. E. (1991). Organizational commitment, job involvement, and turnover: A substantive and methodological analysis.Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 380–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jorde-Bloom, P. (1988). Factors influencing overall job satisfaction and organizational commitment in early childhood work environments.Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 3, 107–122.Google Scholar
  11. Klein, K. J., & Hall, R. J. (1988). Correlates of employee satisfaction with stock ownership: Who likes an ESOP most?Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 630–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Koch, J. L., & Steers, R. M. (1978). Job attachment, satisfaction and turnover among public sector employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 12, 119–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Loundsbery, J.W., & Hoopes, L.L. (1986). A vacation from work: Changes in work and nonwork outcomes.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 392–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Martin, J. E., Magenau, J. M., & Peterson, M. F. (1986). Variables related to patterns of union stewards' commitment.Journal of Labor Research, 7, 323–336.Google Scholar
  15. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1988). Links between work experiences and organizational commitment during the first year of employment: A longitudinal analysis.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 61, 195–209.Google Scholar
  16. Michaels, C. E., & Spector, P. E. (1982). Causes of employee turnover: A test of the Mobley, Griffeth, Hand & Meglino model.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 53–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. O'Reilly, C. A., & Caldwell, D. (1980). Job choice: The impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on subsequent satisfaction and commitment.Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 559–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ritzer, G., & Trice, H. M. (1969). An empirical study of Howard Becker's side-bet theory.Social Forces, 47, 475–479.Google Scholar
  19. Still, L. V. (1983). Part-time versus full-time salespeople: Individual attributes, organizational commitment and work attitudes.Journal of Retailing, 59, 55–79.Google Scholar
  20. Summers, T. P. & Hendrix, W. H. (1991). Modeling the role of pay equity perceptions: A field study.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 64, 145–157.Google Scholar

Studies used for the variable “pay satisfaction”

  1. Aranya, N., Pollock, J., & Amernic, J. (1981). An examination of professional commitment in public accounting.Accounting, Organizations and Society, 6, 271–280.Google Scholar
  2. Barling, J., Wade, B., & Fullagar, C. (1990). Predicting employee commitment to company and union: Divergent models.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 49–61.Google Scholar
  3. Brief, A. P., & Aldag, R. J. (1980). Antecedents of organizational commitments among hospital nurses.Sociology of Work and Occupations, 7, 210–221.Google Scholar
  4. Bruning, S. M., & Snyder, A. R. (1983). Sex and position as predictors of organizational commitment.Academy of Management Journal, 26, 485–491.Google Scholar
  5. Chacko, T.I. (1982). Women and equal employment opportunity: Some unintended effects.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 119–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chassie, M. B., & Bhagat, R. S. (1980). Role stress in working women: Differential effect on selected organizational outcomes.Group and Organization Studies, 5, 224–233.Google Scholar
  7. Decottiis, T. A., & Summers, T. P. (1987). A path analysis of a model of the antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment.Human Relations, 40, 445–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Elloy, D. F., Everett, J.E. & Flynn, W. R. (1991). An examination of the correlates of job involvement.Group and Organization Studies, 16, 160–177.Google Scholar
  9. Ettling, J. (1990). Winning and losing with ESOPS: The design of effective employee stock ownership plans.Academy of Management Proceedings, 269–273.Google Scholar
  10. Griffeth, R.W., Hom, P.W., DeNisi, A.S. & Kirchner, W.K. (1985). A comparison of different methods of clustering countries on the basis of employee attitudes.Human Relations, 38, 813–840.Google Scholar
  11. Hollenbeck, J. R., & Williams, C. R. (1986). Turnover functionally versus turnover frequency: A note on work attitudes and organizational effectiveness.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 606–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hom, P. W., Katerberg, R., & Hulin, C. L. (1979). Comparative examination of three approaches to the prediction of turnover.Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 280–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jauch, L.R., & Sekaran, U. (1978). Employee orientation and job satisfaction among professional employees in hospitals.Journal of Management, 4, 43–56.Google Scholar
  14. Jermier, J. M., Gaines, J., & McIntosh, N. J. (1989). Reactions to physically dangerous work: A conceptual and empirical analysis.Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10, 15–33.Google Scholar
  15. Konovsky, M. A., Folger, R. & Cropanzano, R. (1987). Relative effects of procedural and distributive justice on employee attitudes.Representative research in Social Psychology, 17, 15–24.Google Scholar
  16. Lavan, H., & Banner, D.K. (1985). The perception of role conflict, role ambiguity and organizational commitment: differences between sexes.International Journal of Manpower, 6, 32–35.Google Scholar
  17. Martelli, T. A., Waters, L. K., & Martelli, J. (1989). The police stress survey: Reliability and relation to job satisfaction and organizational commitment.Psychological Reports, 64, 267–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. McFarlin, D. B., & Frone, M. R. (1990). A two-tier wage structure in a nonunion firm.Industrial Relations, 29, 145–154.Google Scholar
  19. McGinnis, S. K., & Morrow, P. C. (1990). Job attitudes among full and part-time employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 36, 82–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Morrow, P. C., & McElroy, J. C. (1987). Work commitment and job satisfaction over three career stages.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 30, 330–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Norris, D. R., & Niebuhr, R. H. (1983). Professionalism, organizational commitment and job satisfaction in an accounting organization.Accounting, Organization and Society, 9, 49–59.Google Scholar
  22. Oliver, N. (1990). Rewards, investments, alternatives and organizational commitment: Empirical evidence and theoretical development.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 19–31.Google Scholar
  23. O'Reilly, C. A., Bretton, G. E., & Roberts, K. H. (1974). Professional employees' preference for upward mobility: An extension.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 5, 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Parasuraman, S. (1982). Predicting turnover intentions and turnover behavior: A multivariate analysis.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 21, 111–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Snyder, R. A., Verderber, K. S., & Morris, J. H. (1986). Voluntary union membership of women and men: Differences in personal characteristics, perceptions and attitudes.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 59, 205–216.Google Scholar
  26. Stone, E.F., & Porter, L.W. (1975). Job characteristics and job attitudes: A multivariate study.Journal of Applied Psychology.60, 57–64.Google Scholar
  27. Welsch, H. P., & Lavan, H. (1981). Inter-relationships between organizational commitment and job characteristics, job satisfaction, professional behavior and organizational climate.Human Relations, 34, 1079–1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wiener, Y., & Vardi, Y. (1980). Relationships between job, organization and work outcomes: An integrative approach.Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 26, 81–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Appendix a list of the studies used in the meta analysis studies used for the variable “Income”

  1. Amernic, J. H., & Aranya, N. (1983). Organizational commitment: Testing two theories.Relations Industrielles, 38, 319–341.Google Scholar
  2. Baba, V. V., & Jamal, M. (1979). On Becker's theory of commitment: An empirical verification among blue-collar workers.Relations Industrielles, 34, 123–137.Google Scholar
  3. Baba, V. V., & Knoop, R. (1987). Organizational commitment and independence among Canadian managers.Relations Industrielles, 42, 325–343.Google Scholar
  4. Bluedorn, A. C. (1982). A unified model of turnover from organizations.Human Relations, 35, 135–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brief, A. P., Van Sell, M. & Aldag, R. J. (1978). Job scope-employee reaction relationships: Methodological considerations.Journal of Management, 4, 27–32.Google Scholar
  6. Chelte, A. E., & Tausky, C. (1986). A note on organization commitment.Work and Occupations, 13, 553–561.Google Scholar
  7. Collarelli, S.M., & Bishop, R.C. (1990). Career Commitment: Functions, correlates, and management.Group & Organization Studies, 15, 158–176.Google Scholar
  8. Glisson, C., & Durick, M. (1988). Predictors of job satisfaction and organizational commitment in human service organizations.Administrative Science Quarterly, 33, 61–81.Google Scholar
  9. Huselid, M. A. & Day, N. E. (1991). Organizational commitment, job involvement, and turnover: A substantive and methodological analysis.Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 380–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jorde-Bloom, P. (1988). Factors influencing overall job satisfaction and organizational commitment in early childhood work environments.Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 3, 107–122.Google Scholar
  11. Klein, K. J., & Hall, R. J. (1988). Correlates of employee satisfaction with stock ownership: Who likes an ESOP most?Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 630–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Koch, J. L., & Steers, R. M. (1978). Job attachment, satisfaction and turnover among public sector employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 12, 119–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Loundsbery, J.W., & Hoopes, L.L. (1986). A vacation from work: Changes in work and nonwork outcomes.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 392–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Martin, J. E., Magenau, J. M., & Peterson, M. F. (1986). Variables related to patterns of union stewards' commitment.Journal of Labor Research, 7, 323–336.Google Scholar
  15. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1988). Links between work experiences and organizational commitment during the first year of employment: A longitudinal analysis.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 61, 195–209.Google Scholar
  16. Michaels, C. E., & Spector, P. E. (1982). Causes of employee turnover: A test of the Mobley, Griffeth, Hand & Meglino model.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 53–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. O'Reilly, C. A., & Caldwell, D. (1980). Job choice: The impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on subsequent satisfaction and commitment.Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 559–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ritzer, G., & Trice, H. M. (1969). An empirical study of Howard Becker's side-bet theory.Social Forces, 47, 475–479.Google Scholar
  19. Still, L. V. (1983). Part-time versus full-time salespeople: Individual attributes, organizational commitment and work attitudes.Journal of Retailing, 59, 55–79.Google Scholar
  20. Summers, T. P. & Hendrix, W. H. (1991). Modeling the role of pay equity perceptions: A field study.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 64, 145–157.Google Scholar

Studies used for the variable “pay satisfaction”

  1. Aranya, N., Pollock, J., & Amernic, J. (1981). An examination of professional commitment in public accounting.Accounting, Organizations and Society, 6, 271–280.Google Scholar
  2. Barling, J., Wade, B., & Fullagar, C. (1990). Predicting employee commitment to company and union: Divergent models.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 49–61.Google Scholar
  3. Brief, A. P., & Aldag, R. J. (1980). Antecedents of organizational commitments among hospital nurses.Sociology of Work and Occupations, 7, 210–221.Google Scholar
  4. Bruning, S. M., & Snyder, A. R. (1983). Sex and position as predictors of organizational commitment.Academy of Management Journal, 26, 485–491.Google Scholar
  5. Chacko, T.I. (1982). Women and equal employment opportunity: Some unintended effects.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 119–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chassie, M. B., & Bhagat, R. S. (1980). Role stress in working women: Differential effect on selected organizational outcomes.Group and Organization Studies, 5, 224–233.Google Scholar
  7. Decottiis, T. A., & Summers, T. P. (1987). A path analysis of a model of the antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment.Human Relations, 40, 445–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Elloy, D. F., Everett, J.E. & Flynn, W. R. (1991). An examination of the correlates of job involvement.Group and Organization Studies, 16, 160–177.Google Scholar
  9. Ettling, J. (1990). Winning and losing with ESOPS: The design of effective employee stock ownership plans.Academy of Management Proceedings, 269–273.Google Scholar
  10. Griffeth, R.W., Hom, P.W., DeNisi, A.S. & Kirchner, W.K. (1985). A comparison of different methods of clustering countries on the basis of employee attitudes.Human Relations, 38, 813–840.Google Scholar
  11. Hollenbeck, J. R., & Williams, C. R. (1986). Turnover functionally versus turnover frequency: A note on work attitudes and organizational effectiveness.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 606–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hom, P. W., Katerberg, R., & Hulin, C. L. (1979). Comparative examination of three approaches to the prediction of turnover.Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 280–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jauch, L.R., & Sekaran, U. (1978). Employee orientation and job satisfaction among professional employees in hospitals.Journal of Management, 4, 43–56.Google Scholar
  14. Jermier, J. M., Gaines, J., & McIntosh, N. J. (1989). Reactions to physically dangerous work: A conceptual and empirical analysis.Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10, 15–33.Google Scholar
  15. Konovsky, M. A., Folger, R. & Cropanzano, R. (1987). Relative effects of procedural and distributive justice on employee attitudes.Representative research in Social Psychology, 17, 15–24.Google Scholar
  16. Lavan, H., & Banner, D.K. (1985). The perception of role conflict, role ambiguity and organizational commitment: differences between sexes.International Journal of Manpower, 6, 32–35.Google Scholar
  17. Martelli, T. A., Waters, L. K., & Martelli, J. (1989). The police stress survey: Reliability and relation to job satisfaction and organizational commitment.Psychological Reports, 64, 267–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. McFarlin, D. B., & Frone, M. R. (1990). A two-tier wage structure in a nonunion firm.Industrial Relations, 29, 145–154.Google Scholar
  19. McGinnis, S. K., & Morrow, P. C. (1990). Job attitudes among full and part-time employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 36, 82–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Morrow, P. C., & McElroy, J. C. (1987). Work commitment and job satisfaction over three career stages.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 30, 330–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Norris, D. R., & Niebuhr, R. H. (1983). Professionalism, organizational commitment and job satisfaction in an accounting organization.Accounting, Organization and Society, 9, 49–59.Google Scholar
  22. Oliver, N. (1990). Rewards, investments, alternatives and organizational commitment: Empirical evidence and theoretical development.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 19–31.Google Scholar
  23. O'Reilly, C. A., Bretton, G. E., & Roberts, K. H. (1974). Professional employees' preference for upward mobility: An extension.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 5, 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Parasuraman, S. (1982). Predicting turnover intentions and turnover behavior: A multivariate analysis.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 21, 111–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Snyder, R. A., Verderber, K. S., & Morris, J. H. (1986). Voluntary union membership of women and men: Differences in personal characteristics, perceptions and attitudes.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 59, 205–216.Google Scholar
  26. Stone, E.F., & Porter, L.W. (1975). Job characteristics and job attitudes: A multivariate study.Journal of Applied Psychology.60, 57–64.Google Scholar
  27. Welsch, H. P., & Lavan, H. (1981). Inter-relationships between organizational commitment and job characteristics, job satisfaction, professional behavior and organizational climate.Human Relations, 34, 1079–1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wiener, Y., & Vardi, Y. (1980). Relationships between job, organization and work outcomes: An integrative approach.Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 26, 81–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Appendix a list of the studies used in the meta analysis studies used for the variable “Income”

  1. Amernic, J. H., & Aranya, N. (1983). Organizational commitment: Testing two theories.Relations Industrielles, 38, 319–341.Google Scholar
  2. Baba, V. V., & Jamal, M. (1979). On Becker's theory of commitment: An empirical verification among blue-collar workers.Relations Industrielles, 34, 123–137.Google Scholar
  3. Baba, V. V., & Knoop, R. (1987). Organizational commitment and independence among Canadian managers.Relations Industrielles, 42, 325–343.Google Scholar
  4. Bluedorn, A. C. (1982). A unified model of turnover from organizations.Human Relations, 35, 135–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brief, A. P., Van Sell, M. & Aldag, R. J. (1978). Job scope-employee reaction relationships: Methodological considerations.Journal of Management, 4, 27–32.Google Scholar
  6. Chelte, A. E., & Tausky, C. (1986). A note on organization commitment.Work and Occupations, 13, 553–561.Google Scholar
  7. Collarelli, S.M., & Bishop, R.C. (1990). Career Commitment: Functions, correlates, and management.Group & Organization Studies, 15, 158–176.Google Scholar
  8. Glisson, C., & Durick, M. (1988). Predictors of job satisfaction and organizational commitment in human service organizations.Administrative Science Quarterly, 33, 61–81.Google Scholar
  9. Huselid, M. A. & Day, N. E. (1991). Organizational commitment, job involvement, and turnover: A substantive and methodological analysis.Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 380–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jorde-Bloom, P. (1988). Factors influencing overall job satisfaction and organizational commitment in early childhood work environments.Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 3, 107–122.Google Scholar
  11. Klein, K. J., & Hall, R. J. (1988). Correlates of employee satisfaction with stock ownership: Who likes an ESOP most?Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 630–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Koch, J. L., & Steers, R. M. (1978). Job attachment, satisfaction and turnover among public sector employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 12, 119–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Loundsbery, J.W., & Hoopes, L.L. (1986). A vacation from work: Changes in work and nonwork outcomes.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 392–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Martin, J. E., Magenau, J. M., & Peterson, M. F. (1986). Variables related to patterns of union stewards' commitment.Journal of Labor Research, 7, 323–336.Google Scholar
  15. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1988). Links between work experiences and organizational commitment during the first year of employment: A longitudinal analysis.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 61, 195–209.Google Scholar
  16. Michaels, C. E., & Spector, P. E. (1982). Causes of employee turnover: A test of the Mobley, Griffeth, Hand & Meglino model.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 53–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. O'Reilly, C. A., & Caldwell, D. (1980). Job choice: The impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on subsequent satisfaction and commitment.Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 559–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ritzer, G., & Trice, H. M. (1969). An empirical study of Howard Becker's side-bet theory.Social Forces, 47, 475–479.Google Scholar
  19. Still, L. V. (1983). Part-time versus full-time salespeople: Individual attributes, organizational commitment and work attitudes.Journal of Retailing, 59, 55–79.Google Scholar
  20. Summers, T. P. & Hendrix, W. H. (1991). Modeling the role of pay equity perceptions: A field study.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 64, 145–157.Google Scholar

Studies used for the variable “pay satisfaction”

  1. Aranya, N., Pollock, J., & Amernic, J. (1981). An examination of professional commitment in public accounting.Accounting, Organizations and Society, 6, 271–280.Google Scholar
  2. Barling, J., Wade, B., & Fullagar, C. (1990). Predicting employee commitment to company and union: Divergent models.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 49–61.Google Scholar
  3. Brief, A. P., & Aldag, R. J. (1980). Antecedents of organizational commitments among hospital nurses.Sociology of Work and Occupations, 7, 210–221.Google Scholar
  4. Bruning, S. M., & Snyder, A. R. (1983). Sex and position as predictors of organizational commitment.Academy of Management Journal, 26, 485–491.Google Scholar
  5. Chacko, T.I. (1982). Women and equal employment opportunity: Some unintended effects.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 119–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chassie, M. B., & Bhagat, R. S. (1980). Role stress in working women: Differential effect on selected organizational outcomes.Group and Organization Studies, 5, 224–233.Google Scholar
  7. Decottiis, T. A., & Summers, T. P. (1987). A path analysis of a model of the antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment.Human Relations, 40, 445–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Elloy, D. F., Everett, J.E. & Flynn, W. R. (1991). An examination of the correlates of job involvement.Group and Organization Studies, 16, 160–177.Google Scholar
  9. Ettling, J. (1990). Winning and losing with ESOPS: The design of effective employee stock ownership plans.Academy of Management Proceedings, 269–273.Google Scholar
  10. Griffeth, R.W., Hom, P.W., DeNisi, A.S. & Kirchner, W.K. (1985). A comparison of different methods of clustering countries on the basis of employee attitudes.Human Relations, 38, 813–840.Google Scholar
  11. Hollenbeck, J. R., & Williams, C. R. (1986). Turnover functionally versus turnover frequency: A note on work attitudes and organizational effectiveness.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 606–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hom, P. W., Katerberg, R., & Hulin, C. L. (1979). Comparative examination of three approaches to the prediction of turnover.Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 280–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jauch, L.R., & Sekaran, U. (1978). Employee orientation and job satisfaction among professional employees in hospitals.Journal of Management, 4, 43–56.Google Scholar
  14. Jermier, J. M., Gaines, J., & McIntosh, N. J. (1989). Reactions to physically dangerous work: A conceptual and empirical analysis.Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10, 15–33.Google Scholar
  15. Konovsky, M. A., Folger, R. & Cropanzano, R. (1987). Relative effects of procedural and distributive justice on employee attitudes.Representative research in Social Psychology, 17, 15–24.Google Scholar
  16. Lavan, H., & Banner, D.K. (1985). The perception of role conflict, role ambiguity and organizational commitment: differences between sexes.International Journal of Manpower, 6, 32–35.Google Scholar
  17. Martelli, T. A., Waters, L. K., & Martelli, J. (1989). The police stress survey: Reliability and relation to job satisfaction and organizational commitment.Psychological Reports, 64, 267–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. McFarlin, D. B., & Frone, M. R. (1990). A two-tier wage structure in a nonunion firm.Industrial Relations, 29, 145–154.Google Scholar
  19. McGinnis, S. K., & Morrow, P. C. (1990). Job attitudes among full and part-time employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 36, 82–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Morrow, P. C., & McElroy, J. C. (1987). Work commitment and job satisfaction over three career stages.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 30, 330–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Norris, D. R., & Niebuhr, R. H. (1983). Professionalism, organizational commitment and job satisfaction in an accounting organization.Accounting, Organization and Society, 9, 49–59.Google Scholar
  22. Oliver, N. (1990). Rewards, investments, alternatives and organizational commitment: Empirical evidence and theoretical development.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 19–31.Google Scholar
  23. O'Reilly, C. A., Bretton, G. E., & Roberts, K. H. (1974). Professional employees' preference for upward mobility: An extension.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 5, 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Parasuraman, S. (1982). Predicting turnover intentions and turnover behavior: A multivariate analysis.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 21, 111–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Snyder, R. A., Verderber, K. S., & Morris, J. H. (1986). Voluntary union membership of women and men: Differences in personal characteristics, perceptions and attitudes.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 59, 205–216.Google Scholar
  26. Stone, E.F., & Porter, L.W. (1975). Job characteristics and job attitudes: A multivariate study.Journal of Applied Psychology.60, 57–64.Google Scholar
  27. Welsch, H. P., & Lavan, H. (1981). Inter-relationships between organizational commitment and job characteristics, job satisfaction, professional behavior and organizational climate.Human Relations, 34, 1079–1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wiener, Y., & Vardi, Y. (1980). Relationships between job, organization and work outcomes: An integrative approach.Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 26, 81–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Appendix a list of the studies used in the meta analysis studies used for the variable “Income”

  1. Amernic, J. H., & Aranya, N. (1983). Organizational commitment: Testing two theories.Relations Industrielles, 38, 319–341.Google Scholar
  2. Baba, V. V., & Jamal, M. (1979). On Becker's theory of commitment: An empirical verification among blue-collar workers.Relations Industrielles, 34, 123–137.Google Scholar
  3. Baba, V. V., & Knoop, R. (1987). Organizational commitment and independence among Canadian managers.Relations Industrielles, 42, 325–343.Google Scholar
  4. Bluedorn, A. C. (1982). A unified model of turnover from organizations.Human Relations, 35, 135–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brief, A. P., Van Sell, M. & Aldag, R. J. (1978). Job scope-employee reaction relationships: Methodological considerations.Journal of Management, 4, 27–32.Google Scholar
  6. Chelte, A. E., & Tausky, C. (1986). A note on organization commitment.Work and Occupations, 13, 553–561.Google Scholar
  7. Collarelli, S.M., & Bishop, R.C. (1990). Career Commitment: Functions, correlates, and management.Group & Organization Studies, 15, 158–176.Google Scholar
  8. Glisson, C., & Durick, M. (1988). Predictors of job satisfaction and organizational commitment in human service organizations.Administrative Science Quarterly, 33, 61–81.Google Scholar
  9. Huselid, M. A. & Day, N. E. (1991). Organizational commitment, job involvement, and turnover: A substantive and methodological analysis.Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 380–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jorde-Bloom, P. (1988). Factors influencing overall job satisfaction and organizational commitment in early childhood work environments.Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 3, 107–122.Google Scholar
  11. Klein, K. J., & Hall, R. J. (1988). Correlates of employee satisfaction with stock ownership: Who likes an ESOP most?Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 630–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Koch, J. L., & Steers, R. M. (1978). Job attachment, satisfaction and turnover among public sector employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 12, 119–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Loundsbery, J.W., & Hoopes, L.L. (1986). A vacation from work: Changes in work and nonwork outcomes.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 392–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Martin, J. E., Magenau, J. M., & Peterson, M. F. (1986). Variables related to patterns of union stewards' commitment.Journal of Labor Research, 7, 323–336.Google Scholar
  15. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1988). Links between work experiences and organizational commitment during the first year of employment: A longitudinal analysis.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 61, 195–209.Google Scholar
  16. Michaels, C. E., & Spector, P. E. (1982). Causes of employee turnover: A test of the Mobley, Griffeth, Hand & Meglino model.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 53–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. O'Reilly, C. A., & Caldwell, D. (1980). Job choice: The impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on subsequent satisfaction and commitment.Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 559–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ritzer, G., & Trice, H. M. (1969). An empirical study of Howard Becker's side-bet theory.Social Forces, 47, 475–479.Google Scholar
  19. Still, L. V. (1983). Part-time versus full-time salespeople: Individual attributes, organizational commitment and work attitudes.Journal of Retailing, 59, 55–79.Google Scholar
  20. Summers, T. P. & Hendrix, W. H. (1991). Modeling the role of pay equity perceptions: A field study.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 64, 145–157.Google Scholar

Studies used for the variable “pay satisfaction”

  1. Aranya, N., Pollock, J., & Amernic, J. (1981). An examination of professional commitment in public accounting.Accounting, Organizations and Society, 6, 271–280.Google Scholar
  2. Barling, J., Wade, B., & Fullagar, C. (1990). Predicting employee commitment to company and union: Divergent models.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 49–61.Google Scholar
  3. Brief, A. P., & Aldag, R. J. (1980). Antecedents of organizational commitments among hospital nurses.Sociology of Work and Occupations, 7, 210–221.Google Scholar
  4. Bruning, S. M., & Snyder, A. R. (1983). Sex and position as predictors of organizational commitment.Academy of Management Journal, 26, 485–491.Google Scholar
  5. Chacko, T.I. (1982). Women and equal employment opportunity: Some unintended effects.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 119–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chassie, M. B., & Bhagat, R. S. (1980). Role stress in working women: Differential effect on selected organizational outcomes.Group and Organization Studies, 5, 224–233.Google Scholar
  7. Decottiis, T. A., & Summers, T. P. (1987). A path analysis of a model of the antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment.Human Relations, 40, 445–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Elloy, D. F., Everett, J.E. & Flynn, W. R. (1991). An examination of the correlates of job involvement.Group and Organization Studies, 16, 160–177.Google Scholar
  9. Ettling, J. (1990). Winning and losing with ESOPS: The design of effective employee stock ownership plans.Academy of Management Proceedings, 269–273.Google Scholar
  10. Griffeth, R.W., Hom, P.W., DeNisi, A.S. & Kirchner, W.K. (1985). A comparison of different methods of clustering countries on the basis of employee attitudes.Human Relations, 38, 813–840.Google Scholar
  11. Hollenbeck, J. R., & Williams, C. R. (1986). Turnover functionally versus turnover frequency: A note on work attitudes and organizational effectiveness.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 606–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hom, P. W., Katerberg, R., & Hulin, C. L. (1979). Comparative examination of three approaches to the prediction of turnover.Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 280–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jauch, L.R., & Sekaran, U. (1978). Employee orientation and job satisfaction among professional employees in hospitals.Journal of Management, 4, 43–56.Google Scholar
  14. Jermier, J. M., Gaines, J., & McIntosh, N. J. (1989). Reactions to physically dangerous work: A conceptual and empirical analysis.Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10, 15–33.Google Scholar
  15. Konovsky, M. A., Folger, R. & Cropanzano, R. (1987). Relative effects of procedural and distributive justice on employee attitudes.Representative research in Social Psychology, 17, 15–24.Google Scholar
  16. Lavan, H., & Banner, D.K. (1985). The perception of role conflict, role ambiguity and organizational commitment: differences between sexes.International Journal of Manpower, 6, 32–35.Google Scholar
  17. Martelli, T. A., Waters, L. K., & Martelli, J. (1989). The police stress survey: Reliability and relation to job satisfaction and organizational commitment.Psychological Reports, 64, 267–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. McFarlin, D. B., & Frone, M. R. (1990). A two-tier wage structure in a nonunion firm.Industrial Relations, 29, 145–154.Google Scholar
  19. McGinnis, S. K., & Morrow, P. C. (1990). Job attitudes among full and part-time employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 36, 82–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Morrow, P. C., & McElroy, J. C. (1987). Work commitment and job satisfaction over three career stages.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 30, 330–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Norris, D. R., & Niebuhr, R. H. (1983). Professionalism, organizational commitment and job satisfaction in an accounting organization.Accounting, Organization and Society, 9, 49–59.Google Scholar
  22. Oliver, N. (1990). Rewards, investments, alternatives and organizational commitment: Empirical evidence and theoretical development.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 19–31.Google Scholar
  23. O'Reilly, C. A., Bretton, G. E., & Roberts, K. H. (1974). Professional employees' preference for upward mobility: An extension.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 5, 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Parasuraman, S. (1982). Predicting turnover intentions and turnover behavior: A multivariate analysis.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 21, 111–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Snyder, R. A., Verderber, K. S., & Morris, J. H. (1986). Voluntary union membership of women and men: Differences in personal characteristics, perceptions and attitudes.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 59, 205–216.Google Scholar
  26. Stone, E.F., & Porter, L.W. (1975). Job characteristics and job attitudes: A multivariate study.Journal of Applied Psychology.60, 57–64.Google Scholar
  27. Welsch, H. P., & Lavan, H. (1981). Inter-relationships between organizational commitment and job characteristics, job satisfaction, professional behavior and organizational climate.Human Relations, 34, 1079–1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wiener, Y., & Vardi, Y. (1980). Relationships between job, organization and work outcomes: An integrative approach.Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 26, 81–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Appendix a list of the studies used in the meta analysis studies used for the variable “Income”

  1. Amernic, J. H., & Aranya, N. (1983). Organizational commitment: Testing two theories.Relations Industrielles, 38, 319–341.Google Scholar
  2. Baba, V. V., & Jamal, M. (1979). On Becker's theory of commitment: An empirical verification among blue-collar workers.Relations Industrielles, 34, 123–137.Google Scholar
  3. Baba, V. V., & Knoop, R. (1987). Organizational commitment and independence among Canadian managers.Relations Industrielles, 42, 325–343.Google Scholar
  4. Bluedorn, A. C. (1982). A unified model of turnover from organizations.Human Relations, 35, 135–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brief, A. P., Van Sell, M. & Aldag, R. J. (1978). Job scope-employee reaction relationships: Methodological considerations.Journal of Management, 4, 27–32.Google Scholar
  6. Chelte, A. E., & Tausky, C. (1986). A note on organization commitment.Work and Occupations, 13, 553–561.Google Scholar
  7. Collarelli, S.M., & Bishop, R.C. (1990). Career Commitment: Functions, correlates, and management.Group & Organization Studies, 15, 158–176.Google Scholar
  8. Glisson, C., & Durick, M. (1988). Predictors of job satisfaction and organizational commitment in human service organizations.Administrative Science Quarterly, 33, 61–81.Google Scholar
  9. Huselid, M. A. & Day, N. E. (1991). Organizational commitment, job involvement, and turnover: A substantive and methodological analysis.Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 380–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jorde-Bloom, P. (1988). Factors influencing overall job satisfaction and organizational commitment in early childhood work environments.Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 3, 107–122.Google Scholar
  11. Klein, K. J., & Hall, R. J. (1988). Correlates of employee satisfaction with stock ownership: Who likes an ESOP most?Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 630–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Koch, J. L., & Steers, R. M. (1978). Job attachment, satisfaction and turnover among public sector employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 12, 119–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Loundsbery, J.W., & Hoopes, L.L. (1986). A vacation from work: Changes in work and nonwork outcomes.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 392–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Martin, J. E., Magenau, J. M., & Peterson, M. F. (1986). Variables related to patterns of union stewards' commitment.Journal of Labor Research, 7, 323–336.Google Scholar
  15. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1988). Links between work experiences and organizational commitment during the first year of employment: A longitudinal analysis.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 61, 195–209.Google Scholar
  16. Michaels, C. E., & Spector, P. E. (1982). Causes of employee turnover: A test of the Mobley, Griffeth, Hand & Meglino model.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 53–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. O'Reilly, C. A., & Caldwell, D. (1980). Job choice: The impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on subsequent satisfaction and commitment.Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 559–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ritzer, G., & Trice, H. M. (1969). An empirical study of Howard Becker's side-bet theory.Social Forces, 47, 475–479.Google Scholar
  19. Still, L. V. (1983). Part-time versus full-time salespeople: Individual attributes, organizational commitment and work attitudes.Journal of Retailing, 59, 55–79.Google Scholar
  20. Summers, T. P. & Hendrix, W. H. (1991). Modeling the role of pay equity perceptions: A field study.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 64, 145–157.Google Scholar

Studies used for the variable “pay satisfaction”

  1. Aranya, N., Pollock, J., & Amernic, J. (1981). An examination of professional commitment in public accounting.Accounting, Organizations and Society, 6, 271–280.Google Scholar
  2. Barling, J., Wade, B., & Fullagar, C. (1990). Predicting employee commitment to company and union: Divergent models.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 49–61.Google Scholar
  3. Brief, A. P., & Aldag, R. J. (1980). Antecedents of organizational commitments among hospital nurses.Sociology of Work and Occupations, 7, 210–221.Google Scholar
  4. Bruning, S. M., & Snyder, A. R. (1983). Sex and position as predictors of organizational commitment.Academy of Management Journal, 26, 485–491.Google Scholar
  5. Chacko, T.I. (1982). Women and equal employment opportunity: Some unintended effects.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 119–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chassie, M. B., & Bhagat, R. S. (1980). Role stress in working women: Differential effect on selected organizational outcomes.Group and Organization Studies, 5, 224–233.Google Scholar
  7. Decottiis, T. A., & Summers, T. P. (1987). A path analysis of a model of the antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment.Human Relations, 40, 445–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Elloy, D. F., Everett, J.E. & Flynn, W. R. (1991). An examination of the correlates of job involvement.Group and Organization Studies, 16, 160–177.Google Scholar
  9. Ettling, J. (1990). Winning and losing with ESOPS: The design of effective employee stock ownership plans.Academy of Management Proceedings, 269–273.Google Scholar
  10. Griffeth, R.W., Hom, P.W., DeNisi, A.S. & Kirchner, W.K. (1985). A comparison of different methods of clustering countries on the basis of employee attitudes.Human Relations, 38, 813–840.Google Scholar
  11. Hollenbeck, J. R., & Williams, C. R. (1986). Turnover functionally versus turnover frequency: A note on work attitudes and organizational effectiveness.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 606–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hom, P. W., Katerberg, R., & Hulin, C. L. (1979). Comparative examination of three approaches to the prediction of turnover.Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 280–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jauch, L.R., & Sekaran, U. (1978). Employee orientation and job satisfaction among professional employees in hospitals.Journal of Management, 4, 43–56.Google Scholar
  14. Jermier, J. M., Gaines, J., & McIntosh, N. J. (1989). Reactions to physically dangerous work: A conceptual and empirical analysis.Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10, 15–33.Google Scholar
  15. Konovsky, M. A., Folger, R. & Cropanzano, R. (1987). Relative effects of procedural and distributive justice on employee attitudes.Representative research in Social Psychology, 17, 15–24.Google Scholar
  16. Lavan, H., & Banner, D.K. (1985). The perception of role conflict, role ambiguity and organizational commitment: differences between sexes.International Journal of Manpower, 6, 32–35.Google Scholar
  17. Martelli, T. A., Waters, L. K., & Martelli, J. (1989). The police stress survey: Reliability and relation to job satisfaction and organizational commitment.Psychological Reports, 64, 267–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. McFarlin, D. B., & Frone, M. R. (1990). A two-tier wage structure in a nonunion firm.Industrial Relations, 29, 145–154.Google Scholar
  19. McGinnis, S. K., & Morrow, P. C. (1990). Job attitudes among full and part-time employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 36, 82–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Morrow, P. C., & McElroy, J. C. (1987). Work commitment and job satisfaction over three career stages.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 30, 330–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Norris, D. R., & Niebuhr, R. H. (1983). Professionalism, organizational commitment and job satisfaction in an accounting organization.Accounting, Organization and Society, 9, 49–59.Google Scholar
  22. Oliver, N. (1990). Rewards, investments, alternatives and organizational commitment: Empirical evidence and theoretical development.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 19–31.Google Scholar
  23. O'Reilly, C. A., Bretton, G. E., & Roberts, K. H. (1974). Professional employees' preference for upward mobility: An extension.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 5, 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Parasuraman, S. (1982). Predicting turnover intentions and turnover behavior: A multivariate analysis.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 21, 111–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Snyder, R. A., Verderber, K. S., & Morris, J. H. (1986). Voluntary union membership of women and men: Differences in personal characteristics, perceptions and attitudes.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 59, 205–216.Google Scholar
  26. Stone, E.F., & Porter, L.W. (1975). Job characteristics and job attitudes: A multivariate study.Journal of Applied Psychology.60, 57–64.Google Scholar
  27. Welsch, H. P., & Lavan, H. (1981). Inter-relationships between organizational commitment and job characteristics, job satisfaction, professional behavior and organizational climate.Human Relations, 34, 1079–1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wiener, Y., & Vardi, Y. (1980). Relationships between job, organization and work outcomes: An integrative approach.Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 26, 81–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Appendix a list of the studies used in the meta analysis studies used for the variable “Income”

  1. Amernic, J. H., & Aranya, N. (1983). Organizational commitment: Testing two theories.Relations Industrielles, 38, 319–341.Google Scholar
  2. Baba, V. V., & Jamal, M. (1979). On Becker's theory of commitment: An empirical verification among blue-collar workers.Relations Industrielles, 34, 123–137.Google Scholar
  3. Baba, V. V., & Knoop, R. (1987). Organizational commitment and independence among Canadian managers.Relations Industrielles, 42, 325–343.Google Scholar
  4. Bluedorn, A. C. (1982). A unified model of turnover from organizations.Human Relations, 35, 135–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brief, A. P., Van Sell, M. & Aldag, R. J. (1978). Job scope-employee reaction relationships: Methodological considerations.Journal of Management, 4, 27–32.Google Scholar
  6. Chelte, A. E., & Tausky, C. (1986). A note on organization commitment.Work and Occupations, 13, 553–561.Google Scholar
  7. Collarelli, S.M., & Bishop, R.C. (1990). Career Commitment: Functions, correlates, and management.Group & Organization Studies, 15, 158–176.Google Scholar
  8. Glisson, C., & Durick, M. (1988). Predictors of job satisfaction and organizational commitment in human service organizations.Administrative Science Quarterly, 33, 61–81.Google Scholar
  9. Huselid, M. A. & Day, N. E. (1991). Organizational commitment, job involvement, and turnover: A substantive and methodological analysis.Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 380–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jorde-Bloom, P. (1988). Factors influencing overall job satisfaction and organizational commitment in early childhood work environments.Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 3, 107–122.Google Scholar
  11. Klein, K. J., & Hall, R. J. (1988). Correlates of employee satisfaction with stock ownership: Who likes an ESOP most?Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 630–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Koch, J. L., & Steers, R. M. (1978). Job attachment, satisfaction and turnover among public sector employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 12, 119–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Loundsbery, J.W., & Hoopes, L.L. (1986). A vacation from work: Changes in work and nonwork outcomes.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 392–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Martin, J. E., Magenau, J. M., & Peterson, M. F. (1986). Variables related to patterns of union stewards' commitment.Journal of Labor Research, 7, 323–336.Google Scholar
  15. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1988). Links between work experiences and organizational commitment during the first year of employment: A longitudinal analysis.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 61, 195–209.Google Scholar
  16. Michaels, C. E., & Spector, P. E. (1982). Causes of employee turnover: A test of the Mobley, Griffeth, Hand & Meglino model.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 53–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. O'Reilly, C. A., & Caldwell, D. (1980). Job choice: The impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on subsequent satisfaction and commitment.Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 559–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ritzer, G., & Trice, H. M. (1969). An empirical study of Howard Becker's side-bet theory.Social Forces, 47, 475–479.Google Scholar
  19. Still, L. V. (1983). Part-time versus full-time salespeople: Individual attributes, organizational commitment and work attitudes.Journal of Retailing, 59, 55–79.Google Scholar
  20. Summers, T. P. & Hendrix, W. H. (1991). Modeling the role of pay equity perceptions: A field study.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 64, 145–157.Google Scholar

Studies used for the variable “pay satisfaction”

  1. Aranya, N., Pollock, J., & Amernic, J. (1981). An examination of professional commitment in public accounting.Accounting, Organizations and Society, 6, 271–280.Google Scholar
  2. Barling, J., Wade, B., & Fullagar, C. (1990). Predicting employee commitment to company and union: Divergent models.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 49–61.Google Scholar
  3. Brief, A. P., & Aldag, R. J. (1980). Antecedents of organizational commitments among hospital nurses.Sociology of Work and Occupations, 7, 210–221.Google Scholar
  4. Bruning, S. M., & Snyder, A. R. (1983). Sex and position as predictors of organizational commitment.Academy of Management Journal, 26, 485–491.Google Scholar
  5. Chacko, T.I. (1982). Women and equal employment opportunity: Some unintended effects.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 119–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chassie, M. B., & Bhagat, R. S. (1980). Role stress in working women: Differential effect on selected organizational outcomes.Group and Organization Studies, 5, 224–233.Google Scholar
  7. Decottiis, T. A., & Summers, T. P. (1987). A path analysis of a model of the antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment.Human Relations, 40, 445–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Elloy, D. F., Everett, J.E. & Flynn, W. R. (1991). An examination of the correlates of job involvement.Group and Organization Studies, 16, 160–177.Google Scholar
  9. Ettling, J. (1990). Winning and losing with ESOPS: The design of effective employee stock ownership plans.Academy of Management Proceedings, 269–273.Google Scholar
  10. Griffeth, R.W., Hom, P.W., DeNisi, A.S. & Kirchner, W.K. (1985). A comparison of different methods of clustering countries on the basis of employee attitudes.Human Relations, 38, 813–840.Google Scholar
  11. Hollenbeck, J. R., & Williams, C. R. (1986). Turnover functionally versus turnover frequency: A note on work attitudes and organizational effectiveness.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 606–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hom, P. W., Katerberg, R., & Hulin, C. L. (1979). Comparative examination of three approaches to the prediction of turnover.Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 280–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jauch, L.R., & Sekaran, U. (1978). Employee orientation and job satisfaction among professional employees in hospitals.Journal of Management, 4, 43–56.Google Scholar
  14. Jermier, J. M., Gaines, J., & McIntosh, N. J. (1989). Reactions to physically dangerous work: A conceptual and empirical analysis.Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10, 15–33.Google Scholar
  15. Konovsky, M. A., Folger, R. & Cropanzano, R. (1987). Relative effects of procedural and distributive justice on employee attitudes.Representative research in Social Psychology, 17, 15–24.Google Scholar
  16. Lavan, H., & Banner, D.K. (1985). The perception of role conflict, role ambiguity and organizational commitment: differences between sexes.International Journal of Manpower, 6, 32–35.Google Scholar
  17. Martelli, T. A., Waters, L. K., & Martelli, J. (1989). The police stress survey: Reliability and relation to job satisfaction and organizational commitment.Psychological Reports, 64, 267–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. McFarlin, D. B., & Frone, M. R. (1990). A two-tier wage structure in a nonunion firm.Industrial Relations, 29, 145–154.Google Scholar
  19. McGinnis, S. K., & Morrow, P. C. (1990). Job attitudes among full and part-time employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 36, 82–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Morrow, P. C., & McElroy, J. C. (1987). Work commitment and job satisfaction over three career stages.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 30, 330–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Norris, D. R., & Niebuhr, R. H. (1983). Professionalism, organizational commitment and job satisfaction in an accounting organization.Accounting, Organization and Society, 9, 49–59.Google Scholar
  22. Oliver, N. (1990). Rewards, investments, alternatives and organizational commitment: Empirical evidence and theoretical development.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 19–31.Google Scholar
  23. O'Reilly, C. A., Bretton, G. E., & Roberts, K. H. (1974). Professional employees' preference for upward mobility: An extension.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 5, 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Parasuraman, S. (1982). Predicting turnover intentions and turnover behavior: A multivariate analysis.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 21, 111–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Snyder, R. A., Verderber, K. S., & Morris, J. H. (1986). Voluntary union membership of women and men: Differences in personal characteristics, perceptions and attitudes.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 59, 205–216.Google Scholar
  26. Stone, E.F., & Porter, L.W. (1975). Job characteristics and job attitudes: A multivariate study.Journal of Applied Psychology.60, 57–64.Google Scholar
  27. Welsch, H. P., & Lavan, H. (1981). Inter-relationships between organizational commitment and job characteristics, job satisfaction, professional behavior and organizational climate.Human Relations, 34, 1079–1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wiener, Y., & Vardi, Y. (1980). Relationships between job, organization and work outcomes: An integrative approach.Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 26, 81–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Appendix a list of the studies used in the meta analysis studies used for the variable “Income”

  1. Amernic, J. H., & Aranya, N. (1983). Organizational commitment: Testing two theories.Relations Industrielles, 38, 319–341.Google Scholar
  2. Baba, V. V., & Jamal, M. (1979). On Becker's theory of commitment: An empirical verification among blue-collar workers.Relations Industrielles, 34, 123–137.Google Scholar
  3. Baba, V. V., & Knoop, R. (1987). Organizational commitment and independence among Canadian managers.Relations Industrielles, 42, 325–343.Google Scholar
  4. Bluedorn, A. C. (1982). A unified model of turnover from organizations.Human Relations, 35, 135–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brief, A. P., Van Sell, M. & Aldag, R. J. (1978). Job scope-employee reaction relationships: Methodological considerations.Journal of Management, 4, 27–32.Google Scholar
  6. Chelte, A. E., & Tausky, C. (1986). A note on organization commitment.Work and Occupations, 13, 553–561.Google Scholar
  7. Collarelli, S.M., & Bishop, R.C. (1990). Career Commitment: Functions, correlates, and management.Group & Organization Studies, 15, 158–176.Google Scholar
  8. Glisson, C., & Durick, M. (1988). Predictors of job satisfaction and organizational commitment in human service organizations.Administrative Science Quarterly, 33, 61–81.Google Scholar
  9. Huselid, M. A. & Day, N. E. (1991). Organizational commitment, job involvement, and turnover: A substantive and methodological analysis.Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 380–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jorde-Bloom, P. (1988). Factors influencing overall job satisfaction and organizational commitment in early childhood work environments.Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 3, 107–122.Google Scholar
  11. Klein, K. J., & Hall, R. J. (1988). Correlates of employee satisfaction with stock ownership: Who likes an ESOP most?Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 630–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Koch, J. L., & Steers, R. M. (1978). Job attachment, satisfaction and turnover among public sector employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 12, 119–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Loundsbery, J.W., & Hoopes, L.L. (1986). A vacation from work: Changes in work and nonwork outcomes.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 392–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Martin, J. E., Magenau, J. M., & Peterson, M. F. (1986). Variables related to patterns of union stewards' commitment.Journal of Labor Research, 7, 323–336.Google Scholar
  15. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1988). Links between work experiences and organizational commitment during the first year of employment: A longitudinal analysis.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 61, 195–209.Google Scholar
  16. Michaels, C. E., & Spector, P. E. (1982). Causes of employee turnover: A test of the Mobley, Griffeth, Hand & Meglino model.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 53–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. O'Reilly, C. A., & Caldwell, D. (1980). Job choice: The impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on subsequent satisfaction and commitment.Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 559–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ritzer, G., & Trice, H. M. (1969). An empirical study of Howard Becker's side-bet theory.Social Forces, 47, 475–479.Google Scholar
  19. Still, L. V. (1983). Part-time versus full-time salespeople: Individual attributes, organizational commitment and work attitudes.Journal of Retailing, 59, 55–79.Google Scholar
  20. Summers, T. P. & Hendrix, W. H. (1991). Modeling the role of pay equity perceptions: A field study.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 64, 145–157.Google Scholar

Studies used for the variable “pay satisfaction”

  1. Aranya, N., Pollock, J., & Amernic, J. (1981). An examination of professional commitment in public accounting.Accounting, Organizations and Society, 6, 271–280.Google Scholar
  2. Barling, J., Wade, B., & Fullagar, C. (1990). Predicting employee commitment to company and union: Divergent models.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 49–61.Google Scholar
  3. Brief, A. P., & Aldag, R. J. (1980). Antecedents of organizational commitments among hospital nurses.Sociology of Work and Occupations, 7, 210–221.Google Scholar
  4. Bruning, S. M., & Snyder, A. R. (1983). Sex and position as predictors of organizational commitment.Academy of Management Journal, 26, 485–491.Google Scholar
  5. Chacko, T.I. (1982). Women and equal employment opportunity: Some unintended effects.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 119–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chassie, M. B., & Bhagat, R. S. (1980). Role stress in working women: Differential effect on selected organizational outcomes.Group and Organization Studies, 5, 224–233.Google Scholar
  7. Decottiis, T. A., & Summers, T. P. (1987). A path analysis of a model of the antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment.Human Relations, 40, 445–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Elloy, D. F., Everett, J.E. & Flynn, W. R. (1991). An examination of the correlates of job involvement.Group and Organization Studies, 16, 160–177.Google Scholar
  9. Ettling, J. (1990). Winning and losing with ESOPS: The design of effective employee stock ownership plans.Academy of Management Proceedings, 269–273.Google Scholar
  10. Griffeth, R.W., Hom, P.W., DeNisi, A.S. & Kirchner, W.K. (1985). A comparison of different methods of clustering countries on the basis of employee attitudes.Human Relations, 38, 813–840.Google Scholar
  11. Hollenbeck, J. R., & Williams, C. R. (1986). Turnover functionally versus turnover frequency: A note on work attitudes and organizational effectiveness.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 606–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hom, P. W., Katerberg, R., & Hulin, C. L. (1979). Comparative examination of three approaches to the prediction of turnover.Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 280–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jauch, L.R., & Sekaran, U. (1978). Employee orientation and job satisfaction among professional employees in hospitals.Journal of Management, 4, 43–56.Google Scholar
  14. Jermier, J. M., Gaines, J., & McIntosh, N. J. (1989). Reactions to physically dangerous work: A conceptual and empirical analysis.Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10, 15–33.Google Scholar
  15. Konovsky, M. A., Folger, R. & Cropanzano, R. (1987). Relative effects of procedural and distributive justice on employee attitudes.Representative research in Social Psychology, 17, 15–24.Google Scholar
  16. Lavan, H., & Banner, D.K. (1985). The perception of role conflict, role ambiguity and organizational commitment: differences between sexes.International Journal of Manpower, 6, 32–35.Google Scholar
  17. Martelli, T. A., Waters, L. K., & Martelli, J. (1989). The police stress survey: Reliability and relation to job satisfaction and organizational commitment.Psychological Reports, 64, 267–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. McFarlin, D. B., & Frone, M. R. (1990). A two-tier wage structure in a nonunion firm.Industrial Relations, 29, 145–154.Google Scholar
  19. McGinnis, S. K., & Morrow, P. C. (1990). Job attitudes among full and part-time employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 36, 82–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Morrow, P. C., & McElroy, J. C. (1987). Work commitment and job satisfaction over three career stages.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 30, 330–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Norris, D. R., & Niebuhr, R. H. (1983). Professionalism, organizational commitment and job satisfaction in an accounting organization.Accounting, Organization and Society, 9, 49–59.Google Scholar
  22. Oliver, N. (1990). Rewards, investments, alternatives and organizational commitment: Empirical evidence and theoretical development.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 19–31.Google Scholar
  23. O'Reilly, C. A., Bretton, G. E., & Roberts, K. H. (1974). Professional employees' preference for upward mobility: An extension.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 5, 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Parasuraman, S. (1982). Predicting turnover intentions and turnover behavior: A multivariate analysis.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 21, 111–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Snyder, R. A., Verderber, K. S., & Morris, J. H. (1986). Voluntary union membership of women and men: Differences in personal characteristics, perceptions and attitudes.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 59, 205–216.Google Scholar
  26. Stone, E.F., & Porter, L.W. (1975). Job characteristics and job attitudes: A multivariate study.Journal of Applied Psychology.60, 57–64.Google Scholar
  27. Welsch, H. P., & Lavan, H. (1981). Inter-relationships between organizational commitment and job characteristics, job satisfaction, professional behavior and organizational climate.Human Relations, 34, 1079–1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wiener, Y., & Vardi, Y. (1980). Relationships between job, organization and work outcomes: An integrative approach.Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 26, 81–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Appendix a list of the studies used in the meta analysis studies used for the variable “Income”

  1. Amernic, J. H., & Aranya, N. (1983). Organizational commitment: Testing two theories.Relations Industrielles, 38, 319–341.Google Scholar
  2. Baba, V. V., & Jamal, M. (1979). On Becker's theory of commitment: An empirical verification among blue-collar workers.Relations Industrielles, 34, 123–137.Google Scholar
  3. Baba, V. V., & Knoop, R. (1987). Organizational commitment and independence among Canadian managers.Relations Industrielles, 42, 325–343.Google Scholar
  4. Bluedorn, A. C. (1982). A unified model of turnover from organizations.Human Relations, 35, 135–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brief, A. P., Van Sell, M. & Aldag, R. J. (1978). Job scope-employee reaction relationships: Methodological considerations.Journal of Management, 4, 27–32.Google Scholar
  6. Chelte, A. E., & Tausky, C. (1986). A note on organization commitment.Work and Occupations, 13, 553–561.Google Scholar
  7. Collarelli, S.M., & Bishop, R.C. (1990). Career Commitment: Functions, correlates, and management.Group & Organization Studies, 15, 158–176.Google Scholar
  8. Glisson, C., & Durick, M. (1988). Predictors of job satisfaction and organizational commitment in human service organizations.Administrative Science Quarterly, 33, 61–81.Google Scholar
  9. Huselid, M. A. & Day, N. E. (1991). Organizational commitment, job involvement, and turnover: A substantive and methodological analysis.Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 380–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jorde-Bloom, P. (1988). Factors influencing overall job satisfaction and organizational commitment in early childhood work environments.Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 3, 107–122.Google Scholar
  11. Klein, K. J., & Hall, R. J. (1988). Correlates of employee satisfaction with stock ownership: Who likes an ESOP most?Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 630–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Koch, J. L., & Steers, R. M. (1978). Job attachment, satisfaction and turnover among public sector employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 12, 119–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Loundsbery, J.W., & Hoopes, L.L. (1986). A vacation from work: Changes in work and nonwork outcomes.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 392–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Martin, J. E., Magenau, J. M., & Peterson, M. F. (1986). Variables related to patterns of union stewards' commitment.Journal of Labor Research, 7, 323–336.Google Scholar
  15. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1988). Links between work experiences and organizational commitment during the first year of employment: A longitudinal analysis.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 61, 195–209.Google Scholar
  16. Michaels, C. E., & Spector, P. E. (1982). Causes of employee turnover: A test of the Mobley, Griffeth, Hand & Meglino model.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 53–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. O'Reilly, C. A., & Caldwell, D. (1980). Job choice: The impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on subsequent satisfaction and commitment.Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 559–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ritzer, G., & Trice, H. M. (1969). An empirical study of Howard Becker's side-bet theory.Social Forces, 47, 475–479.Google Scholar
  19. Still, L. V. (1983). Part-time versus full-time salespeople: Individual attributes, organizational commitment and work attitudes.Journal of Retailing, 59, 55–79.Google Scholar
  20. Summers, T. P. & Hendrix, W. H. (1991). Modeling the role of pay equity perceptions: A field study.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 64, 145–157.Google Scholar

Studies used for the variable “pay satisfaction”

  1. Aranya, N., Pollock, J., & Amernic, J. (1981). An examination of professional commitment in public accounting.Accounting, Organizations and Society, 6, 271–280.Google Scholar
  2. Barling, J., Wade, B., & Fullagar, C. (1990). Predicting employee commitment to company and union: Divergent models.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 49–61.Google Scholar
  3. Brief, A. P., & Aldag, R. J. (1980). Antecedents of organizational commitments among hospital nurses.Sociology of Work and Occupations, 7, 210–221.Google Scholar
  4. Bruning, S. M., & Snyder, A. R. (1983). Sex and position as predictors of organizational commitment.Academy of Management Journal, 26, 485–491.Google Scholar
  5. Chacko, T.I. (1982). Women and equal employment opportunity: Some unintended effects.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 119–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chassie, M. B., & Bhagat, R. S. (1980). Role stress in working women: Differential effect on selected organizational outcomes.Group and Organization Studies, 5, 224–233.Google Scholar
  7. Decottiis, T. A., & Summers, T. P. (1987). A path analysis of a model of the antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment.Human Relations, 40, 445–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Elloy, D. F., Everett, J.E. & Flynn, W. R. (1991). An examination of the correlates of job involvement.Group and Organization Studies, 16, 160–177.Google Scholar
  9. Ettling, J. (1990). Winning and losing with ESOPS: The design of effective employee stock ownership plans.Academy of Management Proceedings, 269–273.Google Scholar
  10. Griffeth, R.W., Hom, P.W., DeNisi, A.S. & Kirchner, W.K. (1985). A comparison of different methods of clustering countries on the basis of employee attitudes.Human Relations, 38, 813–840.Google Scholar
  11. Hollenbeck, J. R., & Williams, C. R. (1986). Turnover functionally versus turnover frequency: A note on work attitudes and organizational effectiveness.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 606–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hom, P. W., Katerberg, R., & Hulin, C. L. (1979). Comparative examination of three approaches to the prediction of turnover.Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 280–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jauch, L.R., & Sekaran, U. (1978). Employee orientation and job satisfaction among professional employees in hospitals.Journal of Management, 4, 43–56.Google Scholar
  14. Jermier, J. M., Gaines, J., & McIntosh, N. J. (1989). Reactions to physically dangerous work: A conceptual and empirical analysis.Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10, 15–33.Google Scholar
  15. Konovsky, M. A., Folger, R. & Cropanzano, R. (1987). Relative effects of procedural and distributive justice on employee attitudes.Representative research in Social Psychology, 17, 15–24.Google Scholar
  16. Lavan, H., & Banner, D.K. (1985). The perception of role conflict, role ambiguity and organizational commitment: differences between sexes.International Journal of Manpower, 6, 32–35.Google Scholar
  17. Martelli, T. A., Waters, L. K., & Martelli, J. (1989). The police stress survey: Reliability and relation to job satisfaction and organizational commitment.Psychological Reports, 64, 267–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. McFarlin, D. B., & Frone, M. R. (1990). A two-tier wage structure in a nonunion firm.Industrial Relations, 29, 145–154.Google Scholar
  19. McGinnis, S. K., & Morrow, P. C. (1990). Job attitudes among full and part-time employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 36, 82–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Morrow, P. C., & McElroy, J. C. (1987). Work commitment and job satisfaction over three career stages.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 30, 330–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Norris, D. R., & Niebuhr, R. H. (1983). Professionalism, organizational commitment and job satisfaction in an accounting organization.Accounting, Organization and Society, 9, 49–59.Google Scholar
  22. Oliver, N. (1990). Rewards, investments, alternatives and organizational commitment: Empirical evidence and theoretical development.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 19–31.Google Scholar
  23. O'Reilly, C. A., Bretton, G. E., & Roberts, K. H. (1974). Professional employees' preference for upward mobility: An extension.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 5, 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Parasuraman, S. (1982). Predicting turnover intentions and turnover behavior: A multivariate analysis.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 21, 111–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Snyder, R. A., Verderber, K. S., & Morris, J. H. (1986). Voluntary union membership of women and men: Differences in personal characteristics, perceptions and attitudes.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 59, 205–216.Google Scholar
  26. Stone, E.F., & Porter, L.W. (1975). Job characteristics and job attitudes: A multivariate study.Journal of Applied Psychology.60, 57–64.Google Scholar
  27. Welsch, H. P., & Lavan, H. (1981). Inter-relationships between organizational commitment and job characteristics, job satisfaction, professional behavior and organizational climate.Human Relations, 34, 1079–1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wiener, Y., & Vardi, Y. (1980). Relationships between job, organization and work outcomes: An integrative approach.Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 26, 81–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Appendix a list of the studies used in the meta analysis studies used for the variable “Income”

  1. Amernic, J. H., & Aranya, N. (1983). Organizational commitment: Testing two theories.Relations Industrielles, 38, 319–341.Google Scholar
  2. Baba, V. V., & Jamal, M. (1979). On Becker's theory of commitment: An empirical verification among blue-collar workers.Relations Industrielles, 34, 123–137.Google Scholar
  3. Baba, V. V., & Knoop, R. (1987). Organizational commitment and independence among Canadian managers.Relations Industrielles, 42, 325–343.Google Scholar
  4. Bluedorn, A. C. (1982). A unified model of turnover from organizations.Human Relations, 35, 135–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brief, A. P., Van Sell, M. & Aldag, R. J. (1978). Job scope-employee reaction relationships: Methodological considerations.Journal of Management, 4, 27–32.Google Scholar
  6. Chelte, A. E., & Tausky, C. (1986). A note on organization commitment.Work and Occupations, 13, 553–561.Google Scholar
  7. Collarelli, S.M., & Bishop, R.C. (1990). Career Commitment: Functions, correlates, and management.Group & Organization Studies, 15, 158–176.Google Scholar
  8. Glisson, C., & Durick, M. (1988). Predictors of job satisfaction and organizational commitment in human service organizations.Administrative Science Quarterly, 33, 61–81.Google Scholar
  9. Huselid, M. A. & Day, N. E. (1991). Organizational commitment, job involvement, and turnover: A substantive and methodological analysis.Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 380–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jorde-Bloom, P. (1988). Factors influencing overall job satisfaction and organizational commitment in early childhood work environments.Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 3, 107–122.Google Scholar
  11. Klein, K. J., & Hall, R. J. (1988). Correlates of employee satisfaction with stock ownership: Who likes an ESOP most?Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 630–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Koch, J. L., & Steers, R. M. (1978). Job attachment, satisfaction and turnover among public sector employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 12, 119–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Loundsbery, J.W., & Hoopes, L.L. (1986). A vacation from work: Changes in work and nonwork outcomes.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 392–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Martin, J. E., Magenau, J. M., & Peterson, M. F. (1986). Variables related to patterns of union stewards' commitment.Journal of Labor Research, 7, 323–336.Google Scholar
  15. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1988). Links between work experiences and organizational commitment during the first year of employment: A longitudinal analysis.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 61, 195–209.Google Scholar
  16. Michaels, C. E., & Spector, P. E. (1982). Causes of employee turnover: A test of the Mobley, Griffeth, Hand & Meglino model.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 53–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. O'Reilly, C. A., & Caldwell, D. (1980). Job choice: The impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on subsequent satisfaction and commitment.Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 559–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ritzer, G., & Trice, H. M. (1969). An empirical study of Howard Becker's side-bet theory.Social Forces, 47, 475–479.Google Scholar
  19. Still, L. V. (1983). Part-time versus full-time salespeople: Individual attributes, organizational commitment and work attitudes.Journal of Retailing, 59, 55–79.Google Scholar
  20. Summers, T. P. & Hendrix, W. H. (1991). Modeling the role of pay equity perceptions: A field study.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 64, 145–157.Google Scholar

Studies used for the variable “pay satisfaction”

  1. Aranya, N., Pollock, J., & Amernic, J. (1981). An examination of professional commitment in public accounting.Accounting, Organizations and Society, 6, 271–280.Google Scholar
  2. Barling, J., Wade, B., & Fullagar, C. (1990). Predicting employee commitment to company and union: Divergent models.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 49–61.Google Scholar
  3. Brief, A. P., & Aldag, R. J. (1980). Antecedents of organizational commitments among hospital nurses.Sociology of Work and Occupations, 7, 210–221.Google Scholar
  4. Bruning, S. M., & Snyder, A. R. (1983). Sex and position as predictors of organizational commitment.Academy of Management Journal, 26, 485–491.Google Scholar
  5. Chacko, T.I. (1982). Women and equal employment opportunity: Some unintended effects.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 119–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chassie, M. B., & Bhagat, R. S. (1980). Role stress in working women: Differential effect on selected organizational outcomes.Group and Organization Studies, 5, 224–233.Google Scholar
  7. Decottiis, T. A., & Summers, T. P. (1987). A path analysis of a model of the antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment.Human Relations, 40, 445–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Elloy, D. F., Everett, J.E. & Flynn, W. R. (1991). An examination of the correlates of job involvement.Group and Organization Studies, 16, 160–177.Google Scholar
  9. Ettling, J. (1990). Winning and losing with ESOPS: The design of effective employee stock ownership plans.Academy of Management Proceedings, 269–273.Google Scholar
  10. Griffeth, R.W., Hom, P.W., DeNisi, A.S. & Kirchner, W.K. (1985). A comparison of different methods of clustering countries on the basis of employee attitudes.Human Relations, 38, 813–840.Google Scholar
  11. Hollenbeck, J. R., & Williams, C. R. (1986). Turnover functionally versus turnover frequency: A note on work attitudes and organizational effectiveness.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 606–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hom, P. W., Katerberg, R., & Hulin, C. L. (1979). Comparative examination of three approaches to the prediction of turnover.Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 280–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jauch, L.R., & Sekaran, U. (1978). Employee orientation and job satisfaction among professional employees in hospitals.Journal of Management, 4, 43–56.Google Scholar
  14. Jermier, J. M., Gaines, J., & McIntosh, N. J. (1989). Reactions to physically dangerous work: A conceptual and empirical analysis.Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10, 15–33.Google Scholar
  15. Konovsky, M. A., Folger, R. & Cropanzano, R. (1987). Relative effects of procedural and distributive justice on employee attitudes.Representative research in Social Psychology, 17, 15–24.Google Scholar
  16. Lavan, H., & Banner, D.K. (1985). The perception of role conflict, role ambiguity and organizational commitment: differences between sexes.International Journal of Manpower, 6, 32–35.Google Scholar
  17. Martelli, T. A., Waters, L. K., & Martelli, J. (1989). The police stress survey: Reliability and relation to job satisfaction and organizational commitment.Psychological Reports, 64, 267–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. McFarlin, D. B., & Frone, M. R. (1990). A two-tier wage structure in a nonunion firm.Industrial Relations, 29, 145–154.Google Scholar
  19. McGinnis, S. K., & Morrow, P. C. (1990). Job attitudes among full and part-time employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 36, 82–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Morrow, P. C., & McElroy, J. C. (1987). Work commitment and job satisfaction over three career stages.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 30, 330–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Norris, D. R., & Niebuhr, R. H. (1983). Professionalism, organizational commitment and job satisfaction in an accounting organization.Accounting, Organization and Society, 9, 49–59.Google Scholar
  22. Oliver, N. (1990). Rewards, investments, alternatives and organizational commitment: Empirical evidence and theoretical development.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 19–31.Google Scholar
  23. O'Reilly, C. A., Bretton, G. E., & Roberts, K. H. (1974). Professional employees' preference for upward mobility: An extension.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 5, 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Parasuraman, S. (1982). Predicting turnover intentions and turnover behavior: A multivariate analysis.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 21, 111–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Snyder, R. A., Verderber, K. S., & Morris, J. H. (1986). Voluntary union membership of women and men: Differences in personal characteristics, perceptions and attitudes.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 59, 205–216.Google Scholar
  26. Stone, E.F., & Porter, L.W. (1975). Job characteristics and job attitudes: A multivariate study.Journal of Applied Psychology.60, 57–64.Google Scholar
  27. Welsch, H. P., & Lavan, H. (1981). Inter-relationships between organizational commitment and job characteristics, job satisfaction, professional behavior and organizational climate.Human Relations, 34, 1079–1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wiener, Y., & Vardi, Y. (1980). Relationships between job, organization and work outcomes: An integrative approach.Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 26, 81–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Appendix a list of the studies used in the meta analysis studies used for the variable “Income”

  1. Amernic, J. H., & Aranya, N. (1983). Organizational commitment: Testing two theories.Relations Industrielles, 38, 319–341.Google Scholar
  2. Baba, V. V., & Jamal, M. (1979). On Becker's theory of commitment: An empirical verification among blue-collar workers.Relations Industrielles, 34, 123–137.Google Scholar
  3. Baba, V. V., & Knoop, R. (1987). Organizational commitment and independence among Canadian managers.Relations Industrielles, 42, 325–343.Google Scholar
  4. Bluedorn, A. C. (1982). A unified model of turnover from organizations.Human Relations, 35, 135–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brief, A. P., Van Sell, M. & Aldag, R. J. (1978). Job scope-employee reaction relationships: Methodological considerations.Journal of Management, 4, 27–32.Google Scholar
  6. Chelte, A. E., & Tausky, C. (1986). A note on organization commitment.Work and Occupations, 13, 553–561.Google Scholar
  7. Collarelli, S.M., & Bishop, R.C. (1990). Career Commitment: Functions, correlates, and management.Group & Organization Studies, 15, 158–176.Google Scholar
  8. Glisson, C., & Durick, M. (1988). Predictors of job satisfaction and organizational commitment in human service organizations.Administrative Science Quarterly, 33, 61–81.Google Scholar
  9. Huselid, M. A. & Day, N. E. (1991). Organizational commitment, job involvement, and turnover: A substantive and methodological analysis.Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 380–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jorde-Bloom, P. (1988). Factors influencing overall job satisfaction and organizational commitment in early childhood work environments.Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 3, 107–122.Google Scholar
  11. Klein, K. J., & Hall, R. J. (1988). Correlates of employee satisfaction with stock ownership: Who likes an ESOP most?Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 630–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Koch, J. L., & Steers, R. M. (1978). Job attachment, satisfaction and turnover among public sector employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 12, 119–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Loundsbery, J.W., & Hoopes, L.L. (1986). A vacation from work: Changes in work and nonwork outcomes.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 392–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Martin, J. E., Magenau, J. M., & Peterson, M. F. (1986). Variables related to patterns of union stewards' commitment.Journal of Labor Research, 7, 323–336.Google Scholar
  15. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1988). Links between work experiences and organizational commitment during the first year of employment: A longitudinal analysis.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 61, 195–209.Google Scholar
  16. Michaels, C. E., & Spector, P. E. (1982). Causes of employee turnover: A test of the Mobley, Griffeth, Hand & Meglino model.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 53–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. O'Reilly, C. A., & Caldwell, D. (1980). Job choice: The impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on subsequent satisfaction and commitment.Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 559–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ritzer, G., & Trice, H. M. (1969). An empirical study of Howard Becker's side-bet theory.Social Forces, 47, 475–479.Google Scholar
  19. Still, L. V. (1983). Part-time versus full-time salespeople: Individual attributes, organizational commitment and work attitudes.Journal of Retailing, 59, 55–79.Google Scholar
  20. Summers, T. P. & Hendrix, W. H. (1991). Modeling the role of pay equity perceptions: A field study.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 64, 145–157.Google Scholar

Studies used for the variable “pay satisfaction”

  1. Aranya, N., Pollock, J., & Amernic, J. (1981). An examination of professional commitment in public accounting.Accounting, Organizations and Society, 6, 271–280.Google Scholar
  2. Barling, J., Wade, B., & Fullagar, C. (1990). Predicting employee commitment to company and union: Divergent models.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 49–61.Google Scholar
  3. Brief, A. P., & Aldag, R. J. (1980). Antecedents of organizational commitments among hospital nurses.Sociology of Work and Occupations, 7, 210–221.Google Scholar
  4. Bruning, S. M., & Snyder, A. R. (1983). Sex and position as predictors of organizational commitment.Academy of Management Journal, 26, 485–491.Google Scholar
  5. Chacko, T.I. (1982). Women and equal employment opportunity: Some unintended effects.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 119–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chassie, M. B., & Bhagat, R. S. (1980). Role stress in working women: Differential effect on selected organizational outcomes.Group and Organization Studies, 5, 224–233.Google Scholar
  7. Decottiis, T. A., & Summers, T. P. (1987). A path analysis of a model of the antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment.Human Relations, 40, 445–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Elloy, D. F., Everett, J.E. & Flynn, W. R. (1991). An examination of the correlates of job involvement.Group and Organization Studies, 16, 160–177.Google Scholar
  9. Ettling, J. (1990). Winning and losing with ESOPS: The design of effective employee stock ownership plans.Academy of Management Proceedings, 269–273.Google Scholar
  10. Griffeth, R.W., Hom, P.W., DeNisi, A.S. & Kirchner, W.K. (1985). A comparison of different methods of clustering countries on the basis of employee attitudes.Human Relations, 38, 813–840.Google Scholar
  11. Hollenbeck, J. R., & Williams, C. R. (1986). Turnover functionally versus turnover frequency: A note on work attitudes and organizational effectiveness.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 606–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hom, P. W., Katerberg, R., & Hulin, C. L. (1979). Comparative examination of three approaches to the prediction of turnover.Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 280–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jauch, L.R., & Sekaran, U. (1978). Employee orientation and job satisfaction among professional employees in hospitals.Journal of Management, 4, 43–56.Google Scholar
  14. Jermier, J. M., Gaines, J., & McIntosh, N. J. (1989). Reactions to physically dangerous work: A conceptual and empirical analysis.Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10, 15–33.Google Scholar
  15. Konovsky, M. A., Folger, R. & Cropanzano, R. (1987). Relative effects of procedural and distributive justice on employee attitudes.Representative research in Social Psychology, 17, 15–24.Google Scholar
  16. Lavan, H., & Banner, D.K. (1985). The perception of role conflict, role ambiguity and organizational commitment: differences between sexes.International Journal of Manpower, 6, 32–35.Google Scholar
  17. Martelli, T. A., Waters, L. K., & Martelli, J. (1989). The police stress survey: Reliability and relation to job satisfaction and organizational commitment.Psychological Reports, 64, 267–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. McFarlin, D. B., & Frone, M. R. (1990). A two-tier wage structure in a nonunion firm.Industrial Relations, 29, 145–154.Google Scholar
  19. McGinnis, S. K., & Morrow, P. C. (1990). Job attitudes among full and part-time employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 36, 82–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Morrow, P. C., & McElroy, J. C. (1987). Work commitment and job satisfaction over three career stages.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 30, 330–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Norris, D. R., & Niebuhr, R. H. (1983). Professionalism, organizational commitment and job satisfaction in an accounting organization.Accounting, Organization and Society, 9, 49–59.Google Scholar
  22. Oliver, N. (1990). Rewards, investments, alternatives and organizational commitment: Empirical evidence and theoretical development.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 19–31.Google Scholar
  23. O'Reilly, C. A., Bretton, G. E., & Roberts, K. H. (1974). Professional employees' preference for upward mobility: An extension.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 5, 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Parasuraman, S. (1982). Predicting turnover intentions and turnover behavior: A multivariate analysis.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 21, 111–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Snyder, R. A., Verderber, K. S., & Morris, J. H. (1986). Voluntary union membership of women and men: Differences in personal characteristics, perceptions and attitudes.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 59, 205–216.Google Scholar
  26. Stone, E.F., & Porter, L.W. (1975). Job characteristics and job attitudes: A multivariate study.Journal of Applied Psychology.60, 57–64.Google Scholar
  27. Welsch, H. P., & Lavan, H. (1981). Inter-relationships between organizational commitment and job characteristics, job satisfaction, professional behavior and organizational climate.Human Relations, 34, 1079–1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wiener, Y., & Vardi, Y. (1980). Relationships between job, organization and work outcomes: An integrative approach.Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 26, 81–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Appendix a list of the studies used in the meta analysis studies used for the variable “Income”

  1. Amernic, J. H., & Aranya, N. (1983). Organizational commitment: Testing two theories.Relations Industrielles, 38, 319–341.Google Scholar
  2. Baba, V. V., & Jamal, M. (1979). On Becker's theory of commitment: An empirical verification among blue-collar workers.Relations Industrielles, 34, 123–137.Google Scholar
  3. Baba, V. V., & Knoop, R. (1987). Organizational commitment and independence among Canadian managers.Relations Industrielles, 42, 325–343.Google Scholar
  4. Bluedorn, A. C. (1982). A unified model of turnover from organizations.Human Relations, 35, 135–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brief, A. P., Van Sell, M. & Aldag, R. J. (1978). Job scope-employee reaction relationships: Methodological considerations.Journal of Management, 4, 27–32.Google Scholar
  6. Chelte, A. E., & Tausky, C. (1986). A note on organization commitment.Work and Occupations, 13, 553–561.Google Scholar
  7. Collarelli, S.M., & Bishop, R.C. (1990). Career Commitment: Functions, correlates, and management.Group & Organization Studies, 15, 158–176.Google Scholar
  8. Glisson, C., & Durick, M. (1988). Predictors of job satisfaction and organizational commitment in human service organizations.Administrative Science Quarterly, 33, 61–81.Google Scholar
  9. Huselid, M. A. & Day, N. E. (1991). Organizational commitment, job involvement, and turnover: A substantive and methodological analysis.Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 380–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jorde-Bloom, P. (1988). Factors influencing overall job satisfaction and organizational commitment in early childhood work environments.Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 3, 107–122.Google Scholar
  11. Klein, K. J., & Hall, R. J. (1988). Correlates of employee satisfaction with stock ownership: Who likes an ESOP most?Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 630–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Koch, J. L., & Steers, R. M. (1978). Job attachment, satisfaction and turnover among public sector employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 12, 119–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Loundsbery, J.W., & Hoopes, L.L. (1986). A vacation from work: Changes in work and nonwork outcomes.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 392–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Martin, J. E., Magenau, J. M., & Peterson, M. F. (1986). Variables related to patterns of union stewards' commitment.Journal of Labor Research, 7, 323–336.Google Scholar
  15. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1988). Links between work experiences and organizational commitment during the first year of employment: A longitudinal analysis.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 61, 195–209.Google Scholar
  16. Michaels, C. E., & Spector, P. E. (1982). Causes of employee turnover: A test of the Mobley, Griffeth, Hand & Meglino model.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 53–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. O'Reilly, C. A., & Caldwell, D. (1980). Job choice: The impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on subsequent satisfaction and commitment.Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 559–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ritzer, G., & Trice, H. M. (1969). An empirical study of Howard Becker's side-bet theory.Social Forces, 47, 475–479.Google Scholar
  19. Still, L. V. (1983). Part-time versus full-time salespeople: Individual attributes, organizational commitment and work attitudes.Journal of Retailing, 59, 55–79.Google Scholar
  20. Summers, T. P. & Hendrix, W. H. (1991). Modeling the role of pay equity perceptions: A field study.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 64, 145–157.Google Scholar

Studies used for the variable “pay satisfaction”

  1. Aranya, N., Pollock, J., & Amernic, J. (1981). An examination of professional commitment in public accounting.Accounting, Organizations and Society, 6, 271–280.Google Scholar
  2. Barling, J., Wade, B., & Fullagar, C. (1990). Predicting employee commitment to company and union: Divergent models.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 49–61.Google Scholar
  3. Brief, A. P., & Aldag, R. J. (1980). Antecedents of organizational commitments among hospital nurses.Sociology of Work and Occupations, 7, 210–221.Google Scholar
  4. Bruning, S. M., & Snyder, A. R. (1983). Sex and position as predictors of organizational commitment.Academy of Management Journal, 26, 485–491.Google Scholar
  5. Chacko, T.I. (1982). Women and equal employment opportunity: Some unintended effects.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 119–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chassie, M. B., & Bhagat, R. S. (1980). Role stress in working women: Differential effect on selected organizational outcomes.Group and Organization Studies, 5, 224–233.Google Scholar
  7. Decottiis, T. A., & Summers, T. P. (1987). A path analysis of a model of the antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment.Human Relations, 40, 445–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Elloy, D. F., Everett, J.E. & Flynn, W. R. (1991). An examination of the correlates of job involvement.Group and Organization Studies, 16, 160–177.Google Scholar
  9. Ettling, J. (1990). Winning and losing with ESOPS: The design of effective employee stock ownership plans.Academy of Management Proceedings, 269–273.Google Scholar
  10. Griffeth, R.W., Hom, P.W., DeNisi, A.S. & Kirchner, W.K. (1985). A comparison of different methods of clustering countries on the basis of employee attitudes.Human Relations, 38, 813–840.Google Scholar
  11. Hollenbeck, J. R., & Williams, C. R. (1986). Turnover functionally versus turnover frequency: A note on work attitudes and organizational effectiveness.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 606–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hom, P. W., Katerberg, R., & Hulin, C. L. (1979). Comparative examination of three approaches to the prediction of turnover.Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 280–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jauch, L.R., & Sekaran, U. (1978). Employee orientation and job satisfaction among professional employees in hospitals.Journal of Management, 4, 43–56.Google Scholar
  14. Jermier, J. M., Gaines, J., & McIntosh, N. J. (1989). Reactions to physically dangerous work: A conceptual and empirical analysis.Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10, 15–33.Google Scholar
  15. Konovsky, M. A., Folger, R. & Cropanzano, R. (1987). Relative effects of procedural and distributive justice on employee attitudes.Representative research in Social Psychology, 17, 15–24.Google Scholar
  16. Lavan, H., & Banner, D.K. (1985). The perception of role conflict, role ambiguity and organizational commitment: differences between sexes.International Journal of Manpower, 6, 32–35.Google Scholar
  17. Martelli, T. A., Waters, L. K., & Martelli, J. (1989). The police stress survey: Reliability and relation to job satisfaction and organizational commitment.Psychological Reports, 64, 267–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. McFarlin, D. B., & Frone, M. R. (1990). A two-tier wage structure in a nonunion firm.Industrial Relations, 29, 145–154.Google Scholar
  19. McGinnis, S. K., & Morrow, P. C. (1990). Job attitudes among full and part-time employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 36, 82–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Morrow, P. C., & McElroy, J. C. (1987). Work commitment and job satisfaction over three career stages.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 30, 330–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Norris, D. R., & Niebuhr, R. H. (1983). Professionalism, organizational commitment and job satisfaction in an accounting organization.Accounting, Organization and Society, 9, 49–59.Google Scholar
  22. Oliver, N. (1990). Rewards, investments, alternatives and organizational commitment: Empirical evidence and theoretical development.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 19–31.Google Scholar
  23. O'Reilly, C. A., Bretton, G. E., & Roberts, K. H. (1974). Professional employees' preference for upward mobility: An extension.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 5, 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Parasuraman, S. (1982). Predicting turnover intentions and turnover behavior: A multivariate analysis.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 21, 111–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Snyder, R. A., Verderber, K. S., & Morris, J. H. (1986). Voluntary union membership of women and men: Differences in personal characteristics, perceptions and attitudes.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 59, 205–216.Google Scholar
  26. Stone, E.F., & Porter, L.W. (1975). Job characteristics and job attitudes: A multivariate study.Journal of Applied Psychology.60, 57–64.Google Scholar
  27. Welsch, H. P., & Lavan, H. (1981). Inter-relationships between organizational commitment and job characteristics, job satisfaction, professional behavior and organizational climate.Human Relations, 34, 1079–1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wiener, Y., & Vardi, Y. (1980). Relationships between job, organization and work outcomes: An integrative approach.Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 26, 81–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Appendix a list of the studies used in the meta analysis studies used for the variable “Income”

  1. Amernic, J. H., & Aranya, N. (1983). Organizational commitment: Testing two theories.Relations Industrielles, 38, 319–341.Google Scholar
  2. Baba, V. V., & Jamal, M. (1979). On Becker's theory of commitment: An empirical verification among blue-collar workers.Relations Industrielles, 34, 123–137.Google Scholar
  3. Baba, V. V., & Knoop, R. (1987). Organizational commitment and independence among Canadian managers.Relations Industrielles, 42, 325–343.Google Scholar
  4. Bluedorn, A. C. (1982). A unified model of turnover from organizations.Human Relations, 35, 135–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brief, A. P., Van Sell, M. & Aldag, R. J. (1978). Job scope-employee reaction relationships: Methodological considerations.Journal of Management, 4, 27–32.Google Scholar
  6. Chelte, A. E., & Tausky, C. (1986). A note on organization commitment.Work and Occupations, 13, 553–561.Google Scholar
  7. Collarelli, S.M., & Bishop, R.C. (1990). Career Commitment: Functions, correlates, and management.Group & Organization Studies, 15, 158–176.Google Scholar
  8. Glisson, C., & Durick, M. (1988). Predictors of job satisfaction and organizational commitment in human service organizations.Administrative Science Quarterly, 33, 61–81.Google Scholar
  9. Huselid, M. A. & Day, N. E. (1991). Organizational commitment, job involvement, and turnover: A substantive and methodological analysis.Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 380–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jorde-Bloom, P. (1988). Factors influencing overall job satisfaction and organizational commitment in early childhood work environments.Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 3, 107–122.Google Scholar
  11. Klein, K. J., & Hall, R. J. (1988). Correlates of employee satisfaction with stock ownership: Who likes an ESOP most?Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 630–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Koch, J. L., & Steers, R. M. (1978). Job attachment, satisfaction and turnover among public sector employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 12, 119–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Loundsbery, J.W., & Hoopes, L.L. (1986). A vacation from work: Changes in work and nonwork outcomes.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 392–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Martin, J. E., Magenau, J. M., & Peterson, M. F. (1986). Variables related to patterns of union stewards' commitment.Journal of Labor Research, 7, 323–336.Google Scholar
  15. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1988). Links between work experiences and organizational commitment during the first year of employment: A longitudinal analysis.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 61, 195–209.Google Scholar
  16. Michaels, C. E., & Spector, P. E. (1982). Causes of employee turnover: A test of the Mobley, Griffeth, Hand & Meglino model.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 53–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. O'Reilly, C. A., & Caldwell, D. (1980). Job choice: The impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on subsequent satisfaction and commitment.Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 559–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ritzer, G., & Trice, H. M. (1969). An empirical study of Howard Becker's side-bet theory.Social Forces, 47, 475–479.Google Scholar
  19. Still, L. V. (1983). Part-time versus full-time salespeople: Individual attributes, organizational commitment and work attitudes.Journal of Retailing, 59, 55–79.Google Scholar
  20. Summers, T. P. & Hendrix, W. H. (1991). Modeling the role of pay equity perceptions: A field study.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 64, 145–157.Google Scholar

Studies used for the variable “pay satisfaction”

  1. Aranya, N., Pollock, J., & Amernic, J. (1981). An examination of professional commitment in public accounting.Accounting, Organizations and Society, 6, 271–280.Google Scholar
  2. Barling, J., Wade, B., & Fullagar, C. (1990). Predicting employee commitment to company and union: Divergent models.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 49–61.Google Scholar
  3. Brief, A. P., & Aldag, R. J. (1980). Antecedents of organizational commitments among hospital nurses.Sociology of Work and Occupations, 7, 210–221.Google Scholar
  4. Bruning, S. M., & Snyder, A. R. (1983). Sex and position as predictors of organizational commitment.Academy of Management Journal, 26, 485–491.Google Scholar
  5. Chacko, T.I. (1982). Women and equal employment opportunity: Some unintended effects.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 119–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chassie, M. B., & Bhagat, R. S. (1980). Role stress in working women: Differential effect on selected organizational outcomes.Group and Organization Studies, 5, 224–233.Google Scholar
  7. Decottiis, T. A., & Summers, T. P. (1987). A path analysis of a model of the antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment.Human Relations, 40, 445–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Elloy, D. F., Everett, J.E. & Flynn, W. R. (1991). An examination of the correlates of job involvement.Group and Organization Studies, 16, 160–177.Google Scholar
  9. Ettling, J. (1990). Winning and losing with ESOPS: The design of effective employee stock ownership plans.Academy of Management Proceedings, 269–273.Google Scholar
  10. Griffeth, R.W., Hom, P.W., DeNisi, A.S. & Kirchner, W.K. (1985). A comparison of different methods of clustering countries on the basis of employee attitudes.Human Relations, 38, 813–840.Google Scholar
  11. Hollenbeck, J. R., & Williams, C. R. (1986). Turnover functionally versus turnover frequency: A note on work attitudes and organizational effectiveness.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 606–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hom, P. W., Katerberg, R., & Hulin, C. L. (1979). Comparative examination of three approaches to the prediction of turnover.Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 280–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jauch, L.R., & Sekaran, U. (1978). Employee orientation and job satisfaction among professional employees in hospitals.Journal of Management, 4, 43–56.Google Scholar
  14. Jermier, J. M., Gaines, J., & McIntosh, N. J. (1989). Reactions to physically dangerous work: A conceptual and empirical analysis.Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10, 15–33.Google Scholar
  15. Konovsky, M. A., Folger, R. & Cropanzano, R. (1987). Relative effects of procedural and distributive justice on employee attitudes.Representative research in Social Psychology, 17, 15–24.Google Scholar
  16. Lavan, H., & Banner, D.K. (1985). The perception of role conflict, role ambiguity and organizational commitment: differences between sexes.International Journal of Manpower, 6, 32–35.Google Scholar
  17. Martelli, T. A., Waters, L. K., & Martelli, J. (1989). The police stress survey: Reliability and relation to job satisfaction and organizational commitment.Psychological Reports, 64, 267–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. McFarlin, D. B., & Frone, M. R. (1990). A two-tier wage structure in a nonunion firm.Industrial Relations, 29, 145–154.Google Scholar
  19. McGinnis, S. K., & Morrow, P. C. (1990). Job attitudes among full and part-time employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 36, 82–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Morrow, P. C., & McElroy, J. C. (1987). Work commitment and job satisfaction over three career stages.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 30, 330–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Norris, D. R., & Niebuhr, R. H. (1983). Professionalism, organizational commitment and job satisfaction in an accounting organization.Accounting, Organization and Society, 9, 49–59.Google Scholar
  22. Oliver, N. (1990). Rewards, investments, alternatives and organizational commitment: Empirical evidence and theoretical development.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 19–31.Google Scholar
  23. O'Reilly, C. A., Bretton, G. E., & Roberts, K. H. (1974). Professional employees' preference for upward mobility: An extension.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 5, 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Parasuraman, S. (1982). Predicting turnover intentions and turnover behavior: A multivariate analysis.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 21, 111–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Snyder, R. A., Verderber, K. S., & Morris, J. H. (1986). Voluntary union membership of women and men: Differences in personal characteristics, perceptions and attitudes.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 59, 205–216.Google Scholar
  26. Stone, E.F., & Porter, L.W. (1975). Job characteristics and job attitudes: A multivariate study.Journal of Applied Psychology.60, 57–64.Google Scholar
  27. Welsch, H. P., & Lavan, H. (1981). Inter-relationships between organizational commitment and job characteristics, job satisfaction, professional behavior and organizational climate.Human Relations, 34, 1079–1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wiener, Y., & Vardi, Y. (1980). Relationships between job, organization and work outcomes: An integrative approach.Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 26, 81–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Appendix a list of the studies used in the meta analysis studies used for the variable “Income”

  1. Amernic, J. H., & Aranya, N. (1983). Organizational commitment: Testing two theories.Relations Industrielles, 38, 319–341.Google Scholar
  2. Baba, V. V., & Jamal, M. (1979). On Becker's theory of commitment: An empirical verification among blue-collar workers.Relations Industrielles, 34, 123–137.Google Scholar
  3. Baba, V. V., & Knoop, R. (1987). Organizational commitment and independence among Canadian managers.Relations Industrielles, 42, 325–343.Google Scholar
  4. Bluedorn, A. C. (1982). A unified model of turnover from organizations.Human Relations, 35, 135–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brief, A. P., Van Sell, M. & Aldag, R. J. (1978). Job scope-employee reaction relationships: Methodological considerations.Journal of Management, 4, 27–32.Google Scholar
  6. Chelte, A. E., & Tausky, C. (1986). A note on organization commitment.Work and Occupations, 13, 553–561.Google Scholar
  7. Collarelli, S.M., & Bishop, R.C. (1990). Career Commitment: Functions, correlates, and management.Group & Organization Studies, 15, 158–176.Google Scholar
  8. Glisson, C., & Durick, M. (1988). Predictors of job satisfaction and organizational commitment in human service organizations.Administrative Science Quarterly, 33, 61–81.Google Scholar
  9. Huselid, M. A. & Day, N. E. (1991). Organizational commitment, job involvement, and turnover: A substantive and methodological analysis.Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 380–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jorde-Bloom, P. (1988). Factors influencing overall job satisfaction and organizational commitment in early childhood work environments.Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 3, 107–122.Google Scholar
  11. Klein, K. J., & Hall, R. J. (1988). Correlates of employee satisfaction with stock ownership: Who likes an ESOP most?Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 630–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Koch, J. L., & Steers, R. M. (1978). Job attachment, satisfaction and turnover among public sector employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 12, 119–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Loundsbery, J.W., & Hoopes, L.L. (1986). A vacation from work: Changes in work and nonwork outcomes.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 392–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Martin, J. E., Magenau, J. M., & Peterson, M. F. (1986). Variables related to patterns of union stewards' commitment.Journal of Labor Research, 7, 323–336.Google Scholar
  15. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1988). Links between work experiences and organizational commitment during the first year of employment: A longitudinal analysis.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 61, 195–209.Google Scholar
  16. Michaels, C. E., & Spector, P. E. (1982). Causes of employee turnover: A test of the Mobley, Griffeth, Hand & Meglino model.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 53–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. O'Reilly, C. A., & Caldwell, D. (1980). Job choice: The impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on subsequent satisfaction and commitment.Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 559–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ritzer, G., & Trice, H. M. (1969). An empirical study of Howard Becker's side-bet theory.Social Forces, 47, 475–479.Google Scholar
  19. Still, L. V. (1983). Part-time versus full-time salespeople: Individual attributes, organizational commitment and work attitudes.Journal of Retailing, 59, 55–79.Google Scholar
  20. Summers, T. P. & Hendrix, W. H. (1991). Modeling the role of pay equity perceptions: A field study.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 64, 145–157.Google Scholar

Studies used for the variable “pay satisfaction”

  1. Aranya, N., Pollock, J., & Amernic, J. (1981). An examination of professional commitment in public accounting.Accounting, Organizations and Society, 6, 271–280.Google Scholar
  2. Barling, J., Wade, B., & Fullagar, C. (1990). Predicting employee commitment to company and union: Divergent models.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 49–61.Google Scholar
  3. Brief, A. P., & Aldag, R. J. (1980). Antecedents of organizational commitments among hospital nurses.Sociology of Work and Occupations, 7, 210–221.Google Scholar
  4. Bruning, S. M., & Snyder, A. R. (1983). Sex and position as predictors of organizational commitment.Academy of Management Journal, 26, 485–491.Google Scholar
  5. Chacko, T.I. (1982). Women and equal employment opportunity: Some unintended effects.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 119–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chassie, M. B., & Bhagat, R. S. (1980). Role stress in working women: Differential effect on selected organizational outcomes.Group and Organization Studies, 5, 224–233.Google Scholar
  7. Decottiis, T. A., & Summers, T. P. (1987). A path analysis of a model of the antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment.Human Relations, 40, 445–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Elloy, D. F., Everett, J.E. & Flynn, W. R. (1991). An examination of the correlates of job involvement.Group and Organization Studies, 16, 160–177.Google Scholar
  9. Ettling, J. (1990). Winning and losing with ESOPS: The design of effective employee stock ownership plans.Academy of Management Proceedings, 269–273.Google Scholar
  10. Griffeth, R.W., Hom, P.W., DeNisi, A.S. & Kirchner, W.K. (1985). A comparison of different methods of clustering countries on the basis of employee attitudes.Human Relations, 38, 813–840.Google Scholar
  11. Hollenbeck, J. R., & Williams, C. R. (1986). Turnover functionally versus turnover frequency: A note on work attitudes and organizational effectiveness.Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 606–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hom, P. W., Katerberg, R., & Hulin, C. L. (1979). Comparative examination of three approaches to the prediction of turnover.Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 280–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jauch, L.R., & Sekaran, U. (1978). Employee orientation and job satisfaction among professional employees in hospitals.Journal of Management, 4, 43–56.Google Scholar
  14. Jermier, J. M., Gaines, J., & McIntosh, N. J. (1989). Reactions to physically dangerous work: A conceptual and empirical analysis.Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10, 15–33.Google Scholar
  15. Konovsky, M. A., Folger, R. & Cropanzano, R. (1987). Relative effects of procedural and distributive justice on employee attitudes.Representative research in Social Psychology, 17, 15–24.Google Scholar
  16. Lavan, H., & Banner, D.K. (1985). The perception of role conflict, role ambiguity and organizational commitment: differences between sexes.International Journal of Manpower, 6, 32–35.Google Scholar
  17. Martelli, T. A., Waters, L. K., & Martelli, J. (1989). The police stress survey: Reliability and relation to job satisfaction and organizational commitment.Psychological Reports, 64, 267–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. McFarlin, D. B., & Frone, M. R. (1990). A two-tier wage structure in a nonunion firm.Industrial Relations, 29, 145–154.Google Scholar
  19. McGinnis, S. K., & Morrow, P. C. (1990). Job attitudes among full and part-time employees.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 36, 82–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Morrow, P. C., & McElroy, J. C. (1987). Work commitment and job satisfaction over three career stages.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 30, 330–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Norris, D. R., & Niebuhr, R. H. (1983). Professionalism, organizational commitment and job satisfaction in an accounting organization.Accounting, Organization and Society, 9, 49–59.Google Scholar
  22. Oliver, N. (1990). Rewards, investments, alternatives and organizational commitment: Empirical evidence and theoretical development.Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 19–31.