Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory

, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp 77–126

The archaeology of complex hunter-gatherers

  • Jeanne E. Arnold
Article

Abstract

Archaeologists' reconstructions of paths to complexity have all too often excluded complex hunter-gatherers. However, recent theoretical contributions and long-term field research programs in several regions of the world have now significantly advanced our understanding of complex hunter-gatherers. A discussion of definitions of complexity and a review of current models of the emergence of complexity provide a framework for analyses of complex hunter-gatherers and important cultural phenomena such as sedentism, political integration, prestige economies, feasting, and ideology.

Key words

hunter-gatherers cultural complexity hierarchy labor political economy 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References cited

  1. Aldenderfer, M. (1993). Ritual, hierarchy, and change in foraging societies.Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 12: 1–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ames, K. M. (1985). Hierarchies, stress, and logistical strategies among hunter-gatherers in northwestern North America. In Price, T. D., and Brown, J. A., (eds.),Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers: The Emergence of Cultural Complexity, Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 155–180.Google Scholar
  3. Ames, K. M. (1991). Sedentism: A temporal shift or a transitional change in hunter-gatherer mobility patterns? In Gregg, S. A. (ed.),Between Bands and States, Occasional Paper 9, Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, pp. 108–134.Google Scholar
  4. Ames, K. M. (1994). The Northwest Coast: Complex hunter-gatherers, ecology, and social evolution.Annual Review of Anthropology 23: 209–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arnold, J. E. (1985). Economic specialization in prehistory: Methods of documenting the rise of lithic craft specialization. In Vehik, S. C. (ed.),Lithic Resource Procurement: Proceedings from the Second Conference on Prehistoric Chert Exploitation, Occasional Paper 4, Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, pp. 37–58.Google Scholar
  6. Arnold, J. E. (1987).Craft Specialization in the Prehistoric Channel Islands, California, University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  7. Arnold, J. E. (1990). Lithic resource control and economic change in the Santa Barbara Channel region.Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 12(2): 158–172.Google Scholar
  8. Arnold, J. E. (1991). Transformation of a regional economy: Sociopolitical evolution and the production of valuables in southern California.Antiquity 65: 953–962.Google Scholar
  9. Arnold, J. E. (1992a). Complex hunter-gatherer-fishers of prehistoric California: Chiefs, specialists, and maritime adaptations of the Channel Islands.American Antiquity 57: 60–84.Google Scholar
  10. Arnold, J. E. (1992b). Organizational transformations in complex hunter-gatherer evolution. Presented at the Society for American Archaeology annual meeting, Pittsburgh.Google Scholar
  11. Arnold, J. E. (1992c). Cultural disruption and the political economy in Channel Islands prehistory. In Jones, T. L. (ed.),Essays on the Prehistory of Maritime California, Center for Archaeological Research at Davis No. 10, University of California, Davis, pp. 129–144.Google Scholar
  12. Arnold, J. E. (1993). Labor and the rise of complex hunter-gatherers.Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 12: 75–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Arnold, J. E. (1995). Transportation innovation and social complexity among maritime hunter-gatherer societies.American Anthropologist 97: 733–747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Arnold, J. E. (1996). Organizational transformations: Power and labor among complex hunter-gatherers and other intermediate societies. In Arnold, J. E. (ed.),Emergent Complexity: The Evolution of Intermediate Societies, International Monographs in Prehistory, Ann Arbor, MI, pp. 59–73.Google Scholar
  15. Arnold, J. E., and Munns, A. (1994). Independent or attached specialization: The organization of shell bead production in California.Journal of Field Archaeology 21: 473–489.Google Scholar
  16. Arnold, J. E., and Tissot, B. N. (1993). Measurement of significant marine paleotemperature variation using black abalone shells from prehistoric middens.Quaternary Research 39: 390–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Barnard, A., and Woodburn, J. (1988). Property, power and ideology in hunting and gathering societies: An introduction. In Ingold, T., Riches, D., and Woodburn, J. (eds.),Hunters and Gatherers 2: Property, Power and Ideology, Berg, New York, pp. 4–31.Google Scholar
  18. Bean, L. J., and Lawton, H. (1976). Some explanations for the rise of cultural complexity in native California with comments on proto-agriculture and agriculture. In Bean, L. J., and Blackburn, T. C. (eds.),Native Californians: A Theoretical Retrospective, Ballena Press, Socorro, NM, pp., 19–48.Google Scholar
  19. Bender, B. (1985). Prehistoric developments in the American midcontinent and in Brittany, northwest France. In Price, T. D., and Brown, J. A. (eds.),Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers: The Emergence of Cultural Complexity, Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 21–57.Google Scholar
  20. Bender, B. (1989). The roots of inequality. In Miller, D., Rowlands, M., and Tilley, C. (eds.),Domination and Resistance, Unwin Hyman, London, pp. 83–95.Google Scholar
  21. Bender, B. (1990). The dynamics of nonhierarchical societies. In Upham, S. (ed.),The Evolution of Political Systems: Sociopolitics in Small-Scale Sedentary Societies, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 247–263.Google Scholar
  22. Bender, B., and Morris, B. (1988). Twenty years of history, evolution and social change in gatherer-hunter studies. In Ingold, T., Riches, D., and Woodburn, J. (eds.),Hunters and Gatherers 1: History, Evolution and Social Change, Berg, New York, pp. 4–14.Google Scholar
  23. Binford, L. R. (1990). Mobility, housing, and environment: A comparative study.Journal of Anthropological Research 46: 119–152.Google Scholar
  24. Black, L. T. (1994). Deciphering Aleut/Koniag iconography. In Fitzhugh, W. W., and Chaussonnet, V. (eds.),Anthropology of the North Pacific Rim, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, pp. 133–146.Google Scholar
  25. Blackburn, T. C. (1975).December's Child: A Book of Chumash Oral Narratives Collected by J. P. Harrington, University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  26. Blackburn, T. C. (1994). Sustaining complexity: The California example. Paper presented at the symposium: Complex Hunter-Gatherers of the World, UCLA Institute of Archaeology, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  27. Blackburn, T. C., and Anderson, K. (eds.) (1993).Before the Wilderness: Environmental Management by Native Californians, Ballena Press, Menlo Park, CA.Google Scholar
  28. Boserup, E. (1965).The Conditions of Agricultural Growth, Aldine, Chicago.Google Scholar
  29. Boyd, R., and Richerson, P. (1985).Culture and the Evolutionary Process, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  30. Brown, J. A. (1985). Long-term trends to sedentism and the emergence of complexity in the American midwest. In Price, T. D., and Brown, J. A. (eds.),Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers: The Emergence of Cultural Complexity, Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 201–231.Google Scholar
  31. Brown, J. A. and Price, T. D. (1985). Complex hunter-gatherers: Retrospect and prospect. In Price, T. D., and Brown, J. A., (eds.),Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers: The Emergence of Cultural Complexity, Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 435–442.Google Scholar
  32. Brumfiel, E. M. (1992). Distinguished lecture in archaeology: Breaking and entering the ecosystem—Gender, class, and faction steal the show.American Anthropologist 94: 551–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Brumfiel, E. M. (1994). Factional competition and political development in the New World: An introduction. In Brumfiel, E. M., and Fox, J. W. (eds.),Factional Competition and Political Development in the New World, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 3–13.Google Scholar
  34. Brumfiel, E. M., and Earle, T. K. (1987). Specialization, exchange, and complex societies: An introduction. In Brumfiel, E. M. and Earle, T. K. (eds.),Specialization, Exchange, and Complex Societies, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 1–9.Google Scholar
  35. Burch, E. S., Jr. (1994). The future of hunter-gatherer research. In Burch, E. S., Jr. and Ellanna, L. J. (eds.),Key Issues in Hunter-Gatherer Research, Berg, New York, pp. 441–455.Google Scholar
  36. Burch, E. S., Jr., and Ellanna, L. J. (1994a). Editorial. In Burch, E. S., Jr. and Ellanna, L. J. (eds.),Key Issues in Hunter-Gatherer Research, Berg, New York, pp. 219–221.Google Scholar
  37. Burch, E. S., Jr., and Ellanna, L. J. (1994b). Introduction. In Burch, E. S., Jr. and Ellanna, L. J. (eds.),Key Issues in Hunter-Gatherer Research, Berg, New York, pp. 1–8.Google Scholar
  38. Cannon, A. (1994). Rhythms of complexity: Political opportunity and Northwest Coast salmon fishing. Paper presented at the symposium: Complex Hunter-Gatherers of the World, UCLA Institute of Archaeology, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  39. Carneiro, R. L. (1981). The chiefdom: Precursor of the state. In Jones, G. D., and Kautz, R. R. (eds.),The Transition to Statehood in the New World, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 37–79.Google Scholar
  40. Chatters, J. C. (1989). The antiquity of economic differentiation within households in the Puget Sound region, Northwest Coast. In MacEachern, S., Archer, D., and Gavin, R. (eds.),Households and Communities, University of Calgary Archaeological Association, Calgary, pp. 168–178.Google Scholar
  41. Claassen, C. P. (1991). Gender, shellfishing, and the Shell Mound Archaic. In Gero, J. M., and Conkey, M. W. (eds.),Engendering Archaeology: Women and Prehistory, Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 276–300.Google Scholar
  42. Clarke, D. L. (1976). Mesolithic Europe: The economic basis. In Sieveking, G., Longworth, I., and Wilson, K. (eds.),Problems in Economic and Social Archaeology, Duckworth, London, pp. 449–481.Google Scholar
  43. Cobb, C. R. (1993). Archaeological approaches to the political economy of nonstratified societies. In Schiffer, M. B. (ed.),Archaeological Method and Theory, Vol. 5, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 43–100.Google Scholar
  44. Cohen, M. N. (1981). Pacific Coast foragers: Affluent or overcrowded? In Koyama, S., and Thomas, D. H. (eds.),Affluent Foragers, Senri Ethnological Studies 9, National Museum of Ethnology, Osaka, pp. 275–295.Google Scholar
  45. Cohen, M. N. (1985). Prehistoric hunter-gatherers: The meaning of social complexity. In Price, T. D., and Brown, J. A. (eds.),Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers: The Emergence of Cultural Complexity, Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 99–119.Google Scholar
  46. Conkey, M. W. (1985). Ritual communication, social elaboration, and the variable trajectories of Paleolithic material culture. In Price, T. D., and Brown, J. A. (eds.),Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers: The Emergence of Cultural Complexity, Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 299–323.Google Scholar
  47. Conkey, M. W. (1991). Contexts of action, contexts for power: Material culture and gender in the Magdalenian. In Gero, J. M., and Conkey, M. W. (eds.),Engendering Archaeology: Women and Prehistory, Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 57–92.Google Scholar
  48. Conkey, M. W., and Gero, J. M. (1991). Tensions, pluralities, and engendering archaeology: An introduction to women and prehistory. In Gero, J. M., and Conkey, M. W. (eds.),Engendering Archaeology: Women and Prehistory, Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 3–30.Google Scholar
  49. Coupland, G. G. (1988). Prehistoric economic and social change in the Tsimshian area.Research in Economic Anthropology, Supplement 3: 211–243.Google Scholar
  50. Creamer, W., and Haas, J. (1985). Tribe versus chiefdom in lower Central America.American Antiquity 50: 738–754.Google Scholar
  51. Crowell, A. (1994). Koniag Eskimo poisoned-dart whaling. In Fitzhugh, W. W., and Chaussonnet, V. (eds.),Anthropology of the North Pacific Rim, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, pp. 217–242.Google Scholar
  52. Dietler, M. (1990). Driven by drink: The role of drinking in the political economy and the case of Early Iron Age France.Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 9: 352–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Donald, L. (1985). On the possibility of social class in societies based on extractive subsistence. In Thompson, M., Garcia, M. T., and Kense, F. J. (eds.),Status, Structure and Stratification: Current Archaeological Reconstructions, University of Calgary Archaeological Association, Calgary, pp. 237–243.Google Scholar
  54. Donald, L., and Mitchell, D. H. (1994). Nature and culture on the Northwest Coast of North America: The case of the Wakashan salmon resources. In Burch, E. S., Jr. and Ellanna, L. J. (eds.),Key Issues in Hunter-Gatherer Research, Berg, New York, pp. 95–117.Google Scholar
  55. Drucker, P. (1951).The Northern and Central Nootkan Tribes, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 144, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  56. Earle, T. K. (1987). Chiefdoms in archaeological and ethnohistorical perspective.Annual Review of Anthropology 16: 279–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Earle, T. K. (ed.) (1991).Chiefdoms: Power, Economy, and Ideology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  58. Ellen, R. (1988). Foraging, starch extraction and the sedentary lifestyle in the lowland rainforest of central Seram. In Ingold, T., Riches, D., and Woodburn, J. (eds.),Hunters and Gatherers 1: History, Evolution and Social Change, Berg, New York, pp. 117–134.Google Scholar
  59. Feinman, G. M., and Neitzel, J. (1984). Too many types: an overview of sedentary prestate societies in the Americas. In Schiffer, M. B. (ed.),Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory, Vol. 7, Academic Press, New York, pp. 39–102.Google Scholar
  60. Feldman, R. A. (1987). Architectural evidence for the development of nonegalitarian social systems in coastal Peru. In Haas, J., Pozorski, S., and Pozorski, T. (eds.),The Origins and Development of the Andean State, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 9–14.Google Scholar
  61. Fitzhugh, W. W. (1994). Crossroads of continents: Review and prospect. In Fitzhugh, W. W., and Chaussonnet, V. (eds.),Anthropology of the North Pacific Rim, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, pp. 27–51.Google Scholar
  62. Flanagan, J. C. (1989). Hierarchy in simple “egalitarian” societies.Annual Review of Anthropology 18: 245–266.Google Scholar
  63. Gebauer, A. B., and Price, T. D. (eds.) (1992).Transitions to Agriculture in Prehistory, Prehistory Press, Madison.Google Scholar
  64. Gero, J. M., and Conkey, M. W. (eds.) (1991).Engendering Archaeology: Women and Prehistory, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  65. Gibson, J. L. (1994). Before their time? Early mounds in the Lower Mississippi Valley.Southeastern Archaeology 13: 162–181.Google Scholar
  66. Giddens, A. (1979).Central Problems in Social Theory: Action, Structure and Contradiction in Social Analysis, University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  67. Gifford, E. W. (1926). Clear Lake Pomo society.University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 18(2): 287–390. Berkeley.Google Scholar
  68. Goggin, J. M., and Sturtevant, W. C. (1964). The Calusa: A stratified, nonagricultural society. In Goodenough, W. H. (ed.),Explorations in Cultural Anthropology: Essays in Honor of George Peter Murdock, McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 179–219.Google Scholar
  69. Goldschmidt, W. (1976). Social organization and status differentiation among the Nomlaki. In Bean, L. J., and Blackburn, T. C. (eds.),Native Californians: A Theoretical Retrospective, Ballena Press, Socorro, NM, pp. 125–174.Google Scholar
  70. Gosden, C. (1989). Debt, production, and prehistory.Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 8: 355–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Gould, R. A. (1966). The wealth quest among the Tolowa Indians of northwestern California.Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 110(1): 67–89.Google Scholar
  72. Haas, J. (1990). Foreword. In Upham, S. (ed.),The Evolution of Political Systems: Sociopolitics in Small-Scale Sedentary Societies, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. xv-xvii.Google Scholar
  73. Halstead, P., and O'Shea, J. (1982). A friend in need is a friend indeed: Social storage and the origins of social ranking. In Renfrew, C., and Shennan, S. (eds.),Ranking, Resource and Exchange, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 92–99.Google Scholar
  74. Harris, D. R., and Hillman, G. C. (eds.) (1989).Foraging and Farming: The Evolution of Plant Exploitation, Unwin Hyman, London.Google Scholar
  75. Hayden, B. (1981). Research and development in the stone age: Technological transitions among hunter-gatherers.Current Anthropology 22: 519–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hayden, B. (1990). Nimrods, piscators, pluckers, and planters: The emergence of food production.Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 9: 31–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hayden, B. (1993a). Pathways to power: Principles for creating socioeconomic inequalities. Paper presented at the Society for American Archaeology annual meeting, St. Louis.Google Scholar
  78. Hayden, B. (1993b). The cultural capacities of Neandertals: A review and re-evaluation.Journal of Human Evolution 24: 113–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Hayden, B. (1994). Competition, labor, and complex hunter-gatherers. In Burch, E. S., Jr. and Ellanna, L. J. (eds.),Key Issues in Hunter-Gatherer Research, Berg, New York, pp. 223–239.Google Scholar
  80. Hayden, B. (1996). Thresholds of power in emergent complex societies. In Arnold, J. E. (ed.),Emergent Complexity: The Evolution of Intermediate Societies, International Monographs in Prehistory, Ann Arbor, MI, pp. 50–58.Google Scholar
  81. Hayden, B. (ed.) (1992).A Complex Culture of the British Columbia Plateau, University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver.Google Scholar
  82. Hayden, B., Eldridge, M., Eldridge, A., and Cannon, A. (1985). Complex hunter-gatherers in interior British Columbia. In Price, T. D., and Brown, J. A. (eds.),Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers: The Emergence of Cultural Complexity, Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 181–199.Google Scholar
  83. Hayden, B., and Spafford, J. (1993). The Keatley Creek Site and corporate group archaeology.BC Studies 99: 106–139.Google Scholar
  84. Helms, M. W. (1994). Chiefdom rivalries, control, and external contacts in lower Central America. In Brumfiel, E. M., and Fox, J. W. (eds.),Factional Competition and Political Development in the New World, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 55–60.Google Scholar
  85. Henry, D. O. (1985). Preagricultural sedentism: The Natufian example. In Price, T. D., and Brown, J. A. (eds.),Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers: The Emergence of Cultural Complexity, Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 365–384.Google Scholar
  86. Henry, D. O. (1989).From Foraging to Agriculture: The Levant at the End of the Ice Age, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  87. Higham, C. (1989).The Archaeology of Mainland Southeast Asia, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  88. Higham, C., and Thosarat, R. (1994).Khok Phanom Di, Prehistoric Adaptation to the World's Richest Habitat, Harcourt Brace, New York.Google Scholar
  89. Hollimon, S. E. (1990).Division of Labor and Gender Roles in Santa Barbara Channel Prehistory, Ph. D. dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara.Google Scholar
  90. Huelsbeck, D. R. (1988a). Whaling in the precontact economy of the central Northwest Coast.Arctic Anthropology 25(1): 1–15.Google Scholar
  91. Huelsbeck, D. R. (1988b). The surplus economy of the central Northwest Coast.Research in Economic Anthropology Supplement 3: 149–177.Google Scholar
  92. Ingold, T. (1986).The Appropriation of Nature, Manchester University Press, Manchester.Google Scholar
  93. Ingold, T., Riches, D., and Woodburn, J. (eds.) (1988a).Hunters and Gatherers 1: History, Evolution and Social Change, Berg, New York.Google Scholar
  94. Ingold, T., Riches, D., and Woodburn, J. (eds.) (1988b).Hunters and Gatherers 2: Property, Power and Ideology, Berg, New York.Google Scholar
  95. Jackson, H. E. (1991). The trade fair in hunter-gatherer interaction: The role of intersocietal trade in the evolution of Poverty Point culture. In Gregg, S. A. (ed.),Between Bands and States, Occasional Paper 9, Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, pp. 265–286.Google Scholar
  96. Jackson, T. L. (1991). Pounding acorns: Women's production as social and economic focus. In Gero, J. M., and Conkey, M. W. (eds.),Engendering Archaeology: Women and Prehistory, Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 301–325.Google Scholar
  97. Johnson, A. W., and Earle, T. (1987).The Evolution of Human Societies from Foraging Group to Agrarian State, Stanford University Press, Stanford.Google Scholar
  98. Johnson, G. A. (1982). Organizational structure and scalar stress. In Renfrew, C., Rowlands, M., and Segraves, B. (eds.),Theory and Explanation in Archaeology, Academic Press, New York, pp. 389–421.Google Scholar
  99. Johnson, J. R. (1988).Chumash Social Organization: An Ethnohistoric Perspective, Ph. D. dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara.Google Scholar
  100. Jordan, R. H. (1994). Qasqiluteng: Feasting and ceremonialism among the traditional Koniag of Kodiak Island, Alaska. In Fitzhugh, W. W., and Chaussonnet, V. (eds.),Anthropology of the North Pacific Rim, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, pp. 147–173.Google Scholar
  101. Kan, S. (1989).Symbolic Immortality, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  102. Keeley, L. H. (1988). Hunter-gatherer economic complexity and “population pressure”: A cross-cultural analysis.Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 7: 373–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Kelly, R. (1991). Sedentism, sociopolitical inequality, and resource fluctuations. In Gregg, S. A. (ed.),Between Bands and States, Occasional Paper 9, Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, pp. 135–158.Google Scholar
  104. King, T. F. (1978). Don't that beat the band? Nonegalitarian political organization in prehistoric central California. In Redman, C.,et al. (eds.),Social Archeology: Beyond Subsistence and Dating, Academic Press, New York, pp. 225–248.Google Scholar
  105. Koyama, S., and Thomas, D. H. (eds.) (1981).Affluent Foragers, Senri Ethnological Studies 9, National Museum of Ethnology, Osaka.Google Scholar
  106. Lambert, P. M., and Walker, P. L. (1991). Physical anthropological evidence for the evolution of social complexity in coastal southern California.Antiquity 65: 963–973.Google Scholar
  107. Lee, R. B. (1990). Primitive communism and the origin of social inequality. In Upham, S. (ed.),The Evolution of Political Systems: Sociopolitics in Small-Scale Sedentary Societies, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 225–246.Google Scholar
  108. Lee, R. B. (1992). Art, science, or politics? The crisis in hunter-gatherer studies.American Anthropologist 94: 31–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Loeb, E. M. (1926). Pomo folkways.University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology,19(2): 149–405. Berkeley.Google Scholar
  110. Lourandos, H. (1985). Intensification and Australian prehistory. In Price, T. D., and Brown, J. A., (eds.),Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers: The Emergence of Cultural Complexity, Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 385–423.Google Scholar
  111. Lourandos, H. (1988). Paleopolitics: Resource intensification in Aboriginal Australia and Papua New Guinea. In Ingold, T., Riches, D., and Woodburn, J. (eds.),Hunters and Gatherers 1: History, Evolution and Social Change, Berg, New York, pp. 148–160.Google Scholar
  112. Lourandos, H. (1993). Hunter-gatherer cultural dynamics: Long- and short-term trends in Australian prehistory.Journal of Archaeological Research 1: 67–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. McGuire, R. H. (1983). Breaking down cultural complexity: Inequality and heterogeneity. In Schiffer, M. B. (ed.),Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory, Vol. 6, Academic Press, New York, pp. 91–142.Google Scholar
  114. McGuire, R. H. (1993). Archaeology and Marxism. In Schiffer, M. B. (ed.),Archaeological Method and Theory, Vol. 5, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 101–157.Google Scholar
  115. Mann, M. (1986).The Sources of Social Power: A History of Power from the Beginning to A. D. 1760, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  116. Marquardt, W. H. (1988). Politics and production among the Calusa of south Florida. In Ingold, T., Riches, D., and Woodburn, J. (eds.),Hunters and Gatherers 1: History, Evolution and Social Change, Berg, New York, pp. 161–188.Google Scholar
  117. Marquardt, W. H. (ed.) (1992).Culture and Environment in the Domain of the Calusa, Monograph 1, Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, University of Florida, Gainesville.Google Scholar
  118. Maschner, H. D. G. (1991). The emergence of cultural complexity on the northern Northwest Coast.Antiquity 65: 924–934.Google Scholar
  119. Matson, R. G. (1992). The evolution of Northwest Coast subsistence.Research in Economic Anthropology Supplement 6: 367–428.Google Scholar
  120. Matson, R. G. (1994). Prerequisites for complexity. Paper presented at the symposium: Complex Hunter-gatherers of the World, UCLA Institute of Archaeology, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  121. Matson, R. G., and Coupland, G. (1995).The Prehistory of the Northwest Coast, Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  122. Meillassoux, C. (1981).Maidens, Meal and Money, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  123. Mellars, P. A. (1985). The ecological basis of social complexity in the Upper Paleolithic of southwestern France. In Price, T. D., and Brown, J. A. (eds.),Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers: The Emergence of Cultural Complexity, Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 271–297.Google Scholar
  124. Mitchell, D. (1983). Tribes and chiefdoms on the Northwest Coast: The Tsimshian case. In Nash, R. J. (ed.),The Evolution of Maritime Cultures on the Northeast and the Northwest Coasts of America, Publication 11, Department of Archaeology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, pp. 57–64.Google Scholar
  125. Mitchell, D. (1985). A demographic profile of Northwest Coast slavery. In Thompson, M., Garcia, M. T., and Kense, F. J. (eds.),Status, Structure and Stratification: Current Archaeological Reconstructions, University of Calgary Archaeological Association, Calgary, pp. 227–236.Google Scholar
  126. Mitchell, D. (1994). House and household mobility on the Northwest Coast of North America. Paper presented at the symposium: Complex Hunter-Gatherers of the World, UCLA Institute of Archaeology, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  127. Mitchell, D., and Donald, L. (1988). Archaeology and the study of Northwest Coast economies.Research in Economic Anthropology Supplement 3: 293–351.Google Scholar
  128. Moseley, M. E. (1975).The Maritime Foundations of Andean Civilization, Cummings, Menlo Park, CA.Google Scholar
  129. Moss, M. L. (1993). Shellfish, gender, and status on the Northwest Coast: Reconciling archeological, ethnographic, and ethnohistorical records of the Tlingit.American Anthropologist 95: 631–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Murdock, G. P., and Wilson, S. F. (1972). Settlement patterns and community organization: Cross-cultural codes 3.Ethnology 21: 245–295.Google Scholar
  131. Palsson, G. (1988). Hunters and gatherers of the sea. In Ingold, T., Riches, D., and Woodburn, J. (eds.),Hunters and Gatherers 1: History, Evolution and Social Change, Berg, New York, pp. 189–204.Google Scholar
  132. Paynter, R., and McGuire, R. H. (1991). The archaeology of inequality: Material culture, domination, and resistance. In McGuire, R. H., and Paynter, R. (eds.),The Archaeology of Inequality, Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 1–27.Google Scholar
  133. Peebles, C. S., and Kus, S. M. (1977). Some archaeological correlates of ranked societies.American Antiquity 42: 421–448.Google Scholar
  134. Peterson, N. (1991). Introduction: Cash, commoditisation and changing foragers. In Peterson, N., and Matsuyama, T. (eds.),Cash, Commoditisation and Changing Foragers, Senri Ethnological Studies 30, National Museum of Ethnology, Osaka, pp. 1–16.Google Scholar
  135. Price, B. J. (1984). Competition, productive intensification, and ranked society: Speculations from evolutionary theory. In Ferguson, R. B. (ed.),Warfare, Culture, and Environment, Academic Press, Orlando, FL, pp. 209–240.Google Scholar
  136. Price, T. D. (1985). Affluent foragers of Mesolithic southern Scandinavia. In Price, T. D., and Brown, J. A., (eds.),Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers: The Emergence of Cultural Complexity, Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 341–363.Google Scholar
  137. Price, T. D., and Brown, J. A. (eds.) (1985a).Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers: The Emergence of Cultural Complexity, Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  138. Price, T. D., and Brown, J. A. (1985b). Aspects of hunter-gatherer complexity. In Price, T. D., and Brown, J. A. (eds.),Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers: The Emergence of Cultural Complexity, Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 3–20.Google Scholar
  139. Quilter, J., and Stocker, T. (1983). Subsistence economies and the origins of Andean complex societies.American Anthropologist 85: 545–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Rafferty, J. E. (1985). The archaeological record of sedentariness: Recognition, development, and implications. In Schiffer, M. B. (ed.),Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory, Vol. 8, Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 113–156.Google Scholar
  141. Redmond, E. M. (1994). External warfare and the internal politics of northern South American tribes and chiefdoms. In Brumfiel, E. M., and Fox, J. W. (eds.),Factional Competition and Political Development in the New World, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 44–54.Google Scholar
  142. Renfrew, C. (1973). Monuments, mobilization and social organization in neolithic Wessex. In Renfrew, C. (ed.),The Explanation of Culture Change: Models in Prehistory, University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, pp. 539–558.Google Scholar
  143. Renouf, M. A. P. (1991). Sedentary hunter-gatherers: A case for northern coasts. In Gregg, S. A. (ed.),Between Bands and States, Occasional Paper 9, Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, pp. 89–107.Google Scholar
  144. Rindos, D. (1984).The Origins of Agriculture: An Evolutionary Perspective, Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  145. Rolland, N. (1985). Social inequality and the Pleistocene record. In Thompson, M., Garcia, M. T., and Kense, F. J. (eds.),Status, Structure and Stratification: Current Archaeological Reconstructions, University of Calgary Archaeological Association, Calgary, pp. 255–268.Google Scholar
  146. Roscoe, P. B. (1993). Practice and political centralisation: A new approach to political evolution.Current Anthropology 34: 111–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Rowley-Conwy, P. (1983). Sedentary hunters: The Ertebölle example. In Bailey, G. N. (ed.),Hunter-Gatherer Economy in Prehistory: A European Perspective, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 111–126.Google Scholar
  148. Rowley-Conwy, P. (1986). Between cave painters and crop planters: Aspects of the temperate European Mesolithic. In Zvelebil, M. (ed.),Hunters in Transition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 17–32.Google Scholar
  149. Rowley-Conwy, P., and Zvelebil, M. (1989). Saving it for later: Storage by prehistoric hunter-gatherers in Europe. In Halstead, P., and O'Shea, J. (eds.),Bad Year Economics: Cultural Responses to Risk and Uncertainty, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 40–56.Google Scholar
  150. Russo, M. (1994). Why we don't believe in Archaic ceremonial mounds and why we should: The case from Florida.Southeastern Archaeology 13: 93–109.Google Scholar
  151. Ruyle, E. E. (1973). Slavery, surplus, and stratification on the Northwest Coast: The ethnoenergetics of an incipient stratification system.Current Anthropology 14: 603–631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Saitta, D. J. (1994). Agency, class, and archaeological interpretation.Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 13: 201–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Saitta, D. J., and Keene, A. S. (1990). Politics and surplus flow in prehistoric communal societies. In Upham, S. (ed.),The Evolution of Political Systems: Sociopolitics in Small-Scale Sedentary Societies, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 203–224.Google Scholar
  154. Service, E. R. (1962).Primitive Social Organization: An Evolutionary Perspective, Random House, New York.Google Scholar
  155. Sheehan, G. W. (1985). Whaling as an organizing focus in northwestern Alaskan Eskimo societies. In Price, T. D., and Brown, J. A., (eds.),Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers: The Emergence of Cultural Complexity, Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 123–154.Google Scholar
  156. Shnirelman, V. (1994). Cherchez le chien: Perspectives on the economy of the traditional fishing-oriented people of Kamchatka. In Burch, E. S., Jr. and Ellanna, L. J. (eds.),Key Issues in Hunter-Gatherer Research, Berg, New York, pp. 169–188.Google Scholar
  157. Smith, M. E. (1993). New World complex societies: Recent economic, social, and political studies.Journal of Archaeological Research 1: 5–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Soffer, O. (1985). Patterns of intensification as seen from the Upper Paleolithic of the central Russian plain. In Price, T. D., and Brown, J. A. (eds.),Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers: The Emergence of Cultural Complexity, Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 235–270.Google Scholar
  159. Spencer, C. S. (1993). Human agency, biased transmission, and the cultural evolution of chiefly authority.Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 12: 41–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Spencer, C. S. (1994). Factional ascendance, dimensions of leadership, and the development of centralized authority. In Brumfiel, E. M., and Fox, J. W. (eds.),Factional Competition and Political Development in the New World, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 31–43.Google Scholar
  161. Testart, A. (1982). The significance of food storage among hunter-gatherers: Residence patterns, population densities, and social inequalities.Current Anthropology 23: 523–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Tollefson, K. D. (1987). The Snoqualmie: A Puget Sound chiefdom.Ethnology 26: 121–136.Google Scholar
  163. Tonkinson, R. (1988). “Ideology and domination” in Aboriginal Australia: A Western Desert test case. In Ingold, T., Riches, D., and Woodburn, J. (eds.),Hunters and Gatherers 2: Property, Power and Ideology, Berg, New York, pp. 150–164.Google Scholar
  164. Trigger, B. G. (1993). Marxism in contemporary western archaeology. In Schiffer, M. B. (ed.),Archaeological Method and Theory, Vol. 5, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 159–200.Google Scholar
  165. Upham, S. (1990). Analog or digital? Toward a generic framework for explaining the development of emergent political systems. In Upham, S. (ed.),The Evolution of Political Systems: Sociopolitics in Small-Scale Sedentary Societies, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 87–115.Google Scholar
  166. Walters, I. (1989). Intensified fishery production at Moreton Bay, southeast Queensland, in the late Holocene.Antiquity 63: 215–224.Google Scholar
  167. Widmer, R. J. (1988).The Evolution of the Calusa, University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.Google Scholar
  168. Williams, E. (1987). Complex hunter-gatherers: A view from Australia.Antiquity 61: 310–321.Google Scholar
  169. Wobst, H. M. (1978). The archaeo-ethnology of hunter-gatherers or the tyranny of the ethnographic record in archaeology.American Antiquity 43: 303–309.Google Scholar
  170. Wolf, E. (1982).Europe and the People Without History, University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  171. Woodburn, J. (1980). Hunters and gatherers today and reconstruction of the past. In Gellner, E. (ed.),Soviet and Western Anthropology, Duckworth, London, pp. 95–117.Google Scholar
  172. Woodburn, J. (1988). African hunter-gatherer social organization: Is it best understood as a product of encapsulation? In Ingold, T., Riches, D., and Woodburn, J. (eds.),Hunters and Gatherers 1: History, Evolution and Social Change, Berg, New York, pp. 31–64.Google Scholar
  173. Woodman, P. C. (1985). Mobility in the early Mesolithic of northwestern Europe: An alternative explanation. In Price, T. D., and Brown, J. A. (eds.),Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers: The Emergence of Cultural Complexity, Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 325–339.Google Scholar
  174. Yesner, D. R. (1980). Maritime hunter-gatherers: Ecology and prehistory.Current Anthropology 21: 727–750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Yesner, D. R. (1987). Life in the “Garden of Eden:” Causes and consequences of the adoption of marine diets by human societies. In Harris, M., and Ross, E. B. (eds.),Food and Evolution: Toward a Theory of Human Food Habits, Temple University Press, Philadelphia, pp. 285–310.Google Scholar
  176. Yesner, D. R. (1994a). Archaeological signatures of sociopolitical complexity among high latitude maritime hunter-gatherers. Paper presented at the symposium: Complex Hunter-Gatherers of the World, UCLA Institute of Archaeology, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  177. Yesner, D. R. (1994b). Seasonality and resource “stress” among hunter-gatherers: Archaeological signatures. In Burch, E. S., Jr., and Ellanna, L. J. (eds.),Key Issues in Hunter-Gatherer Research, Berg, New York, pp. 151–167.Google Scholar
  178. Zvelebil, M. (ed.) (1986).Hunters in Transition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeanne E. Arnold
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Anthropology and Institute of ArchaeologyUniversity of CaliforniaLos Angeles

Personalised recommendations