Advertisement

Plant and Soil

, Volume 115, Issue 1, pp 53–58 | Cite as

Effects of addition of calcium and magnesium salts on ammonia volatilization during manure decomposition

  • E. Witter
  • H. Kirchmann
Article

Abstract

Ammonia volatilization during aerobic decomposition of poultry manure was significantly reduced through additions of calcium and magnesium salts. The percentage reduction in ammonia loss decreased during the 48 day decomposition period from 85–100% in the first 2–3 weeks, to 23–52% at the end of the experiment. The maximum amount of ammonia which was retained (i.e. maximum reduction in ammonia loss) through addition of the chloride salts of Mg2+ or Ca2+ was independent of the type of cation. However, CaCl2 released some of the ammonia initially retained as production of CO2 and NH3 from the manure decreased after 3 weeks of decomposition, whereas both MgCl2 and MgSO4 did not release any of the initially retained ammonia over the 7 week incubation period. Over the entire incubation period MgCl2 therefore retained more ammonia than CaCl2. Magnesium sulphate was considerably less effective in retaining ammonia than either chloride salts.

Key words

ammonia volatilization calcium magnesium manure 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Egnér H 1932 Nitrogen losses from stable manure through ammonia volatilization. Meddalande Nr 409 Från Centralanstalten för försöksväsendet på jordbruksområdet, Avdeling för lantbrukskemi Nr 48.Google Scholar
  2. Elliott H A and Collins N E 1983 Chemical methods for controlling ammonia release from poultry litter. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Paper No 83-4521. St Joseph, Michigan.Google Scholar
  3. Feagly S E and Hossner L R 1978 Ammonia volatilization reaction mechanism between ammonium sulphate and carbonate systems. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 42, 364–367.Google Scholar
  4. Fenn L B and Kissel D E 1973 Ammonia volatilization from surface applications of ammonium compounds on calcareous soils. I. General theory. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 37, 855–859.Google Scholar
  5. Fenn L B, Taylor R M and Matocha J E 1981a Ammonia losses from surface applied nitrogen fertilizer as controlled by soluble calcium and magnesium: General theory. Soil. Sci. Soc. Am. J. 45, 777–781.Google Scholar
  6. Fenn L B, Matocha J E and Wu E 1981b A comparison of calcium-carbonate precipitation and pH depression on calcium reduced ammonia loss from surface applied urea. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 45, 1128–1131.Google Scholar
  7. Fenn L B and Hossner L R 1985 Ammonia volatilization from ammonium or ammonium-forming nitrogen fertilizers. Adv. in Soil Sci. 1, 124–168.Google Scholar
  8. Fenn L B and Richards J 1986 Ammonia loss from surface applied urea-acid products. Fert. Res. 9, 265–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jensen S T 1928 Investigations in ammonia volatilization in connection with nitrogen losses during spreading of natural manures. Tidskrift Planteavl 34, 117–147 and 35, 59–80.Google Scholar
  10. Jensen S T 1930 Investigations in ammonia volatilization and nitrogen losses during slurry spreading. Wissensch. Arch. Landw. 3, 161–180.Google Scholar
  11. Kirchmann H and Witter E 1989 Ammonia volatilization during aerobic and anaerobic manure decomposition. Plant and Soil 115, 35–41.Google Scholar
  12. Marion G M and Dutt G R 1974 Ion association in the ammonia—carbon dioxide—water system. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 38, 889–891.Google Scholar
  13. Molloy S P and Tunney H 1983 A laboratory study of ammonia volatilization from cattle and pig slurry. Irish J. Agric. Res. 22, 37–45.Google Scholar
  14. Rheinhauben W Von 1987 Effect of magnesium sulphate addition to urea on nitrogen loss due to ammonia volatilization. Fert. Res. 11, 149–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Schefferle H E 1965 The decomposition of uric-acid in built-up poultry litter. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 28, 412–420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Vlek P L G and Stumpe J M 1978 Effects of solution chemistry and environmental conditions on ammonia volatilization losses from aqueous systems. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 42, 414–421.Google Scholar
  17. Witter E and Kirchmann H 1989 Peat, zeolite and basalt as adsorbents of ammoniacal nitrogen during manure decomposition. Plant and Soil 115, 43–52.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Witter
    • 1
  • H. Kirchmann
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Soil Sciences, Division of Plant NutritionSwedish University of Agricultural SciencesUppsalaSweden

Personalised recommendations