Advertisement

Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Technology transfer: Institutions, models, and impacts on agriculture and rural life in the developing world

  • 389 Accesses

Abstract

Technology transfer is a multi-level process of communication involving a variety of senders and receivers of ideas and materials. As a response to market failure, or as an effort to accelerate market-driven social change, technology transfer may combine public and private aparatus or rely solely on public institutional mechanisms to identify, develop, and deliver innovations and information. Technology transfer institutions include universities, government ministries, research institutes, and what may be termed the ‘project sector’. Four farm- and village-level change models are considered: traditional community development, adoption-diffusion, training and Visit Extension, and Farming Systems Research. The challenges to technology transfer efforts center on developing indigenous capacity to generate and adapt agricultural technology to local conditions. This is the primary objective of technology transfer in agriculture and the basis for advancing rural development.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Agnew, John A. “Technology Transfer and Theories of Development: Conceptual Issues in the South Asian Context.”Journal of Asian and African Studies XVII, 1–2(1982):16–31.

  2. Atwal, A. S. “Technology Assessment in Indian Agriculture.” Chapter 9 in N. Srinivas (ed.),Technology Assessment and Development. New York: Praeger, 1985.

  3. Axinn, G. H. “Host Country Institutions and Diffusion of Technology.” Chapter 10 in J. J. Molnar and H. C. Clonts (eds.),Transferring Food Production Technology to Developing Nations: Economic and Social Dimensions. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1983.

  4. Baum, Warren C., “The Project Cycle.”Finance and Development Review. 7(1982):2–9.

  5. Benor, Daniel and Michael Baxter.Training and Visit Extension. Washington, DC: The World Bank, 1984.

  6. Benor, Daniel, James Q. Harison, and Michael Baxter.Agricultural Extension: The Training and Visit System. Washington, DC: The World Bank, 1984.

  7. Brown, Lawrence A.Innovation Diffusion: A New Perspective. New York, NY: Methuen & Co., 1981.

  8. Cochrane, Willard.The Development of American Agriculture. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1979.

  9. Dahlman, C. J. and L. E. Westphal, “The Meaning of Technological Mastery in Relation to the Transfer of Technology.”Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 458(1981):12–25.

  10. Dorner, Peter.Cooperative and Commune. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1977.

  11. Feller, Irwin, L. Kaltreider, P. Madden, D. Moore, and L. Sims.The Agricultural Technology Delivery System: A Study of the Transfer of Agricultural and Food-Related Technologies; University Park: Institute for Policy Research and Evaluation, The Pennsylvania State University, December, 1984.

  12. Gasson, Ruth. “Farmer Participation in Cooperative Activities.”Sociologia Ruralis. 17(1977):107–123.

  13. Hayami, Y. and V. Ruttan.Agricultural Development: An International Perspective. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1971.

  14. Hirschman, A. O.Development Projects Observed. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 1967.

  15. Johnson, Jane S.Annotated Bibliography on Development and Transfer of Technology. Volume 1. Urbana: University of Illinois, College of Agriculture, INTERPAKS, 1985.

  16. Johnston, B. F., and W. C. Clark.Redesigning Rural Development: A Strategic Perspective. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982.

  17. Just, Richard E., Andrew Schmitz, and David Zilberman. “Technological Change in Agriculture.”Science 206, 14 December (1979):1277–1280.

  18. Katz, E., M. L. Levin, and H. Hamilton, “Traditions of Research on the Diffusion of Innovations.”American Sociological Review. 18(1963):237–252.

  19. Mellor, John W., and Bruce F. Johnston, “The World Food Equation: Interrelations Among Development, Employment, and Food Consumption.”Journal of Economic Literature. 22(1984):531–574.

  20. Monlar, Joseph J., and Howard A. Clonts.Transferring Food Production Technology to Developing Notions: Economic and Social Dimensions. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1983.

  21. Molnar, Joseph J., N. B. Schwartz, and L. L. Lovshin, “Integrated Aquacultural Development: Sociological Issues in the Cooperative Management of Community Fishponds.”Sociologia Ruralis. 25(1, 1985):61–80.

  22. Mosher, A. T.Three Ways to Spur Agricultural Growth. New York: International Agricultural Development Service, 1981.

  23. Norman, David W., E. B. Simmons, and Henry M. Hays.Farming Systems in the Nigerian Savanna: Research and Strategies for Development. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1983.

  24. Oxby, Clara, “Farmers Groups' in Rural Areas of the Third World.”Community Development Journal. 18(1983):50–59.

  25. Popkin, Samuel L.The Rational Peasant. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979.

  26. Pray, Carl E., “The Green Revolution as a Case Study in Transfer of Technology.”Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 458(1981):26–35.

  27. Rivera, William M., and Susan G. Schram (eds.),Agricultural Extension Worldwide: Issues, Practices, and Emerging Priorities. New York: Croom Helm, 1987.

  28. Rogers, Everett M.Diffusion of Innovations. New York, NY: The Free Press, 1983.

  29. Roling, Niels. “Alternative Approaches in Extension.”Progress in Rural Extension and Community Development 1(1982):87–115.

  30. Saint, W. S. and D. W. Coward, “Agriculture and Behavioral Science: Emerging Orientations.”Science. 206 (1977): 1277–1280.

  31. Schwarzweller, H., editor.Research in Rural Sociology and Rural Development. Greenwich, CT: Third World Contexts, Volume III, 1986.

  32. Sfeir, Leila A.Annotated Bibliography on Development and Transfer of Technology. Volume 2. Urbana: University of Illinois, College of Agriculture, INTERPARKS, 1985.

  33. Shaner, W. W., P. F. Philip, and W. R. Schmehl.Farming Systems Research and Development. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1982.

  34. Simmonds, Norman W. Farming Systems Research: A Review. Washington, DC: World Bank. World Bank Technical Paper Number 43, 1985.

  35. Solo, Robert A.Organizing Science for Technology Transfer. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University, 1975.

  36. Staudt, Kathleen. “Uncaptured or Unmotivated? Women and the Food Crisis in Africa.”Rural Sociology. 52 (1987):31–55.

  37. West, Patrick C. “Collective Adoption of Natural Resource Practices in Developing Nations.”Rural Sociology. 48(1983):44–59.

  38. Wortman, S., and R. W. Cummings, Jr.To Feed This World. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, 1978.

  39. Yapa, Lakshman S., “Innovation Bias, Appropriate Technology, and Basic Goods.”Journal of Asian and African Studies XVIII,1–2(1982):32–44.

Download references

Additional information

Joseph J. Molnar is Professor of Rural Sociology at Auburn University. He most recently editedBiotechnology and the New Agricultural Revolution (Westview Press, 1988). He is affiliated with the International Center for Aquaculture at Auburn University and has consulted on a variety of development projects for that unit. Articles dealing with technology transfer and aquaculture development issues have appeared inSociologia Ruralis andHuman Organization.

Curtis M. Jolly is Assistant Professor in the Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology. From 1986 to 1987 he served as Farming Systems Economist at the Institute de l' Economie Rurale, Farming Systems Division, Bamako. At Auburn University, he teaches graduate courses in Agricultural Economics, Project Planning and Sector Analysis and Economics Development. He is also engaged in research in Low-input Agriculture and International Trade. He has published several documents, and working papers at the Institute Senegalais de Recherche Agricole, and the Institute de I' Economie Rurale, Bamako, and articles inThe American Journal of Economics and Sociology, The Journal of Asian and African Studies, Mid South Journal of Economics, Agricultural Extension and Administration, andThe Southern Business and Economic Journal.

Paper prepared under the auspices of a USAID Program Support Grant to the International Center for Aquaculture, Auburn University. We are grateful to P. Duffy and J. Dunkelberger for helpful comments.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Molnar, J.J., Jolly, C.M. Technology transfer: Institutions, models, and impacts on agriculture and rural life in the developing world. Agric Hum Values 5, 16–23 (1988). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02217173

Download citation

Keywords

  • Technology Transfer
  • Farming System
  • Transfer Effort
  • Rural Development
  • Community Development