Biofeedback and Self-regulation

, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 35–49 | Cite as

A controlled study of the effects of EEG biofeedback on cognition and behavior of children with attention deficit disorder and learning disabilities

  • Michael Linden
  • Thomas Habib
  • Vesna Radojevic
Original Articles

Abstract

Eighteen children with ADD/ADHD, some of whom were also LD, ranging in ages from 5 through 15 were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. The experimental condition consisted of 40 45-minute sessions of training in enhancing beta activity and suppressing theta activity, spaced over 6 months. The control condition, waiting list group, received no EEG biofeedback. No other psychological treatment or medication was administered to any subjects. All subjects were measured at pretreatment and at posttreatment on an IQ test and parent behavior rating scales for inattention, hyperactivity, and aggressive/defiant (oppositional) behaviors. At posttreatment the experimental group demonstrated a significant increase (mean of 9 points) on the K-Bit IQ Composite as compared to the control group (p<.05). The experimental group also significantly reduced inattentive behaviors as rated by parents (p<.05). The significant improvements in intellectual functioning and attentive behaviors might be explained as a result of the attentional enhancement affected by EEG biofeedback training. Further research utilizing improved data collection and analysis, more stringent control groups, and larger sample sizes are needed to support and replicate these findings.

Descriptor Key Words

EEG biofeedback attention deficit disorder attention deficit hyperactivity disorder intelligence learning disabilities 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association (1980).Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association (1987).Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed. rev.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  3. Atkins, M., & Milich, R. (1987). IOWA-Conners Teacher Rating Scale. In M. Hersen & A. Bellack (Eds.),Dictionary of behavioral assessment techniques (pp. 273–275). New York: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  4. Barkley, R. A. (1990).Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  5. Kaufman, A., & Kaufman, N. (1990).K.BIT: Kaufman Brief Intelligence Manual. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  6. Kirk, R. E. (1968).Experimental design: Procedures for the behavioral sciences. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  7. Lambert, N., Hartsough, C., Sassone, D., & Sandoval, J. (1987). persistence of hyperactivity symptoms from childhood to adulthood.American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 57, 22–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Linden, M. (1988)An auditory event related potential evaluation of subgroups of hyperactive children to assess underlying arousal level. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology, San Diego.Google Scholar
  9. Linden, M. (1991). Event related potentials of subgroups of attention deficit disorder children and implications for EEG biofeedback.California Biofeedback, 7, 7–12.Google Scholar
  10. Lubar, J. (1991). Discourse on the development of EEG diagnostics and biofeedback for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders.Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 16, 201–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Lubar, J. (1992). Address delivered to CHADD, Chicago, IL, October 14, 1992.Google Scholar
  12. Lubar, J., Bianchini, K., Calhoun, W., Lambert, E., Brody, Z. & Shabsin, H. (1985). Spectral analysis of EEG differences between children with and without learning disabilities.Journal of Learning Disabilities, 18, 403–408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Lubar, J., & Lubar, J. (1984). Electroencephalographic biofeedback of SMR and beta for treatment of attention deficit disorders in a clinical setting.Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 9, 1–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Lubar, J., & Shouse, M. (1976). EEG and behavioral changes in a hyperactive child concurrent with training of the sensorimotor rhythm (SMR). A preliminary report.Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 1, 293–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Milich, R., & Fitzgerald, G. (1985). A validation of inattention/overactivity and aggressive ratings with classroom observations.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 139–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Milich, R., Loney, J., & Landau, S. (1982). Independent dimensions of hyperactivity and aggression: A validation with playroom observation data.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 91, 183–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Muehl, S., Knott, J., & Benton, A. (1965). EEG abnormality and psychological test performanced in reading disability.Cortex, 1, 434–439.Google Scholar
  18. Nall, A. (1973). Alpha training and the hyperactive child: Is it effective?Academic Therapy, 9, 5–19.Google Scholar
  19. Satterfield, J. (1973). EEG issues in children with minimal brain dysfunction.Seminars in Psychiatry, 5, 35–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Satterfield, J., & Braley, B. (1977). Evoked potentials and brain maturation in hyperactive and normal children.EEG and Clinical Neurophysiology, 43, 43–51.Google Scholar
  21. Swanson, J., Nolan, W., & Pelham, W. (1981). The SNAP rating scale.Resources in Education.Google Scholar
  22. Tansey, M. (1984). EEG sensorimotor rhythm biofeedback training: Some effects on the neurologic precursors of learning disabilities.International Journal of Psychophysiology, 1, 163–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Tansey, M. (1985). Brainwave signatures—An index reflective of the brain's functional neuroanatomy: Further findings on the effects of EEG SMR biofeedback training on the neurologic precursors of learning disabilities.International Journal of Psychophysiology, 3, 85–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Tansey, M. (1990). Righting the rhythms of reason: EEG biofeedback training as a therapeutic modality in a clinical office setting.Medical Psychotherapy, 3, 57–68.Google Scholar
  25. Tansey, M. (1991). Wechsler (WISC-R) changes following treatment of learning disabilities via EEG biofeedback training in a private practice setting.Australian Journal of Psychology, 43, 147–153.Google Scholar
  26. Tansey, M., & Bruner, R. (1983). EMG and EEG biofeedback training in the treatment of a 10-year old hyperactive boy with a developmental reading disorder.Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 8, 25–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Winkler, A., Dixon, J., & Parker, J. (1970). Brain function in problem children and controls: Psychometric, neurological, electroencephalogic comparisons.American Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 94–105.Google Scholar
  28. Zametkin, A., Nordal, T., Gross, M., King, A., Semple, W., Rumsey, J., Hamburger, S., & Cohen, R. (1990). Cerebral glucose in adults with hyperactivity of childhood onset.New England Journal of Medicine, 323, 1361–1366.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Linden
    • 1
  • Thomas Habib
    • 1
  • Vesna Radojevic
    • 1
  1. 1.Mission Psychological ConsultantsSan Juan Capistrano

Personalised recommendations