Advertisement

Educational Psychology Review

, Volume 7, Issue 4, pp 373–380 | Cite as

Asian achievement, brain size, and evolution: Comments on A. H. Yee

  • J. Philippe Rushton
Article
  • 59 Downloads

Abstract

Asian achievement is now recognized to be global in manifestation. Yet most explanations of group differences remain narrowly focused on one country (the U.S.A.), on one character (test scores), and from one viewpoint (environmentalism). I offer an evolutionary perspective. Genetic distance estimates indicate an African origin for humans about 200,000 years ago, a dispersal event out of Africa about 110,000 years ago, and a Mongoloid-Caucasoid split about 41,000 years ago. This racial succession is matched by cranial capacities, IQ test scores, speeds of decision time, and numerous other life-history variables including rate of physical maturation, family functioning, testosterone level, law-abidingess, and frequency of dizygotic twinning. Evolutionary selection pressures are more cognitively demanding in the cold arctic where mongoloids evolved than in the hot savanna where Africans evolved. Genetic theories are needed to explain the proportionate group differences.

Key Words

brain size evolution genetics intelligence race differences 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andreasen, N. C., Flaum, M., Swayze, V., O'Leary, D. S., Alliger, R., Cohen, G., Ehrhardt, J., and Yuh, W. T. C. (1993). Intelligence and brain structure in normal individuals.Am. J. Psychiat. 150: 130–134.Google Scholar
  2. Beals, K. L., Smith, C. L., and Dodd, S. M. (1984). Brain size, cranial morphology, climate and time machines.Curr. Anthropol. 25: 301–330.Google Scholar
  3. Broman, S. H., Nichols, P. L., Shaughnessy, P., and Kennedy, W. (1987).Retardation in young children, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.Google Scholar
  4. Bulmer, M. G. (1970).The Biology of Twinning in Man, Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  5. Clark, E. A., and Hanisee, J. (1982). Intellectual and adaptive performance of Asian children in adoptive American settings.Devel. Psychol. 18: 595–599.Google Scholar
  6. Frydman, M., and Lynn, R. (1989). The intelligence of Korean children adopted in Belgium.Person. Indiv. Diff. 10: 1323–1325.Google Scholar
  7. Ho, K. C., Roessmann, U., Straumfjord, J. V., and Monroe, G. (1980). Analysis of brain weight: I and II.Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 104: 635–645.Google Scholar
  8. Jensen, A. R. (1985). The nature of the Black-White difference on various psychometric tests: Spearman's hypothesis.Behav. Brain Sci. 8: 193–263.Google Scholar
  9. Jensen, A. R. (1987). Theg beyond factor analysis. In Connoley, J. C., Glover, J. A., and Ronning R. R. (eds.),The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing and Measurement, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 87–142.Google Scholar
  10. Jensen, A. R. (1993). Spearman's hypothesis tested with chronometric information-processing tasks.Intelligence 17: 47–77.Google Scholar
  11. Jensen, A. R., and Johnson, F. W. (1994). Race and sex differences in head size and IQ.Intelligence, 18: 309–333.Google Scholar
  12. Jensen, A. R., and Whang, P. A. (1993). Reaction times and intelligence: A comparison of Chinese-American and Anglo-American children.J. Biosoc. Sci. 25: 397–410.Google Scholar
  13. Levin, M. (1995). Does Race Matter?Amer. Psychol 50: 45–46.Google Scholar
  14. Lynn, R. (1991). Race differences in intelligence: A global perspective.Mankind Quart. 31: 255–296.Google Scholar
  15. Lynn, R., and Shigehisa, T. (1991). Reaction times and intelligence: A comparison of Japanese and British children.J. Biosoc. Sci. 23: 409–416.Google Scholar
  16. Raz, N., Torres, I. J., Spencer, W. D., Millman, D., Baertschi, J. C., and Sarpel, G. (1993). Neuroanatomical correlates of age-sensitive and age-invariant cognitive abilities: Anin vivo MRI investigation.Intelligence 17: 407–422.Google Scholar
  17. Rushton, J. P. (1989). Japanese inbreeding depression scores: Predictors of cognitive differences between Blacks and Whites.Intelligence 13: 43–51.Google Scholar
  18. Rushton, J. P. (1990). Race and crime: A reply to Roberts and Gabor.Can. J. Criminol. 32: 315–334.Google Scholar
  19. Rushton, J. P. (1992a). Contributions to the history of psychology: XC. Evolutionary biology and heritable traits (with reference to Oriental-White-Black differences): The 1989 AAAS paper.Psychol. Rep. 71: 811–821.Google Scholar
  20. Rushton, J. P. (1992b). Cranial capacity related to sex, rank and race in a stratified random sample of 6325 U.S. military personnel.Intelligence 16: 401–413.Google Scholar
  21. Rushton, J. P. (1992c). Life history comparisons between Orientals and Whites at a Canadian university.Person. Indiv. Diff. 13: 439–442.Google Scholar
  22. Rushton, J. P. (1995).Race, Evolution and Behavior: A Life History Perspective. Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, NJ.Google Scholar
  23. Rushton, J. P. (1994). Sex and race differences in cranial capacity from International Labour Office Data.Intelligence, 19: 281–294.Google Scholar
  24. Ubelaker, D., and Scammel, H. (1992).Bones: A Forensic Detective's Casebook. HarperCollins, New York.Google Scholar
  25. Weinberg, R. A., Scarr, S., and Waldman, I. D. (1992). The Minnesota transracial adoption study: A follow-up of IQ test performance at adolescence.Intelligence 16: 117–135.Google Scholar
  26. Wickett, J. C., Vernon, P. A., and Lee, D. C. (1994):In vivo brain size, head perimeter, and intelligence in a sample of healthy adult females.Person. Indiv. Diff. 16: 831–838.Google Scholar
  27. Willerman, L., Schultz, R., Rutledge, J. N., and Bigler, E. D. (1991).In vivo brain size and intelligence.Intelligence 15: 223–228.Google Scholar
  28. Winick, M., Meyer, K. K., and Harris, R. C. (1975). Malnutrition and environmental enrichment by early adoption.Science 190: 1173–1175.Google Scholar
  29. Yee, A. H. (1992). Asians as sterotypes and students: Misperceptions that persist.Educ. Psychol. Rev. 4: 95–132.Google Scholar
  30. Yee, A. H., Fairchild, H. H., Weizmann, F., and Wyatt, G. E. (1993). Addressing psychology's problems with race.Am. Psychol. 48: 1132–1140.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Philippe Rushton
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Western OntarioLondonCanada

Personalised recommendations