Educational Psychology Review

, Volume 7, Issue 4, pp 351–371 | Cite as

Metacognitive theories

  • Gregory Schraw
  • David Moshman


This paper proposes a framework for understanding people's theories about their own cognition. Metacognitive theories are defined broadly as systematic frameworks used to explain and direct cognition, metacognitive knowledge, and regulatory skills. We distinguish tacit, informal, and formal metacognitive theories and discuss critical differences among them using criteria borrowed from the developmental literature. We also consider the origin and development of these theories, as well as implications for educational research and practice.

Key Words

metacognition self-regulation metacognitive theories knowledge 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gregory Schraw
    • 1
  • David Moshman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Educational PsychologyUniversity of Nebraska-LincolnLincoln

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