Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 19, Issue 2, pp 213–225

A follow-up study of high-functioning autistic children

  • P. Szatmari
  • G. Bartolucci
  • R. Bremner
  • S. Bond
  • S. Rich
Article

Abstract

It is well known that IQ is an important prognostic variable in the outcome of autistic children. There are, however, very few data available on the outcome of nonretarded autistic children as adults. We identified 16 such probands from records and followed them up between 11 and 27 years since discharge from a center specializing in the assessment of autistic children. There were 12 males and 4 females, average age was 26, and mean IQ was 92 (range 68–110). Although the majority were functioning poorly in terms of occupational-social outcome and psychiatric symptoms, a surprising number (4) had a very good outcome and might be considered recovered. The severity of early autistic behavior was a poor predictor of outcome, but neuropsychologic measures of nonverbal problem solving were highly correlated with outcomes. The results of the study indicate that a small percentage of nonretarded autistic children can be expected to recover to a substantial degree.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (1980).Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed.), Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. Andreasen, N. C. (1982). Negative symptoms in schizohrenia.Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 784–788.Google Scholar
  3. Bartolucci, G., Szatmari, P., Krames, F., & Flett, G. (1987).Expressive and receptive social deficits in Asperger's Syndrome. Paper presented at annual meeting of Canadian Academy of Child Psychiatry, Quebec City.Google Scholar
  4. Beery, K. E. (1967).Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration. Chicago: Follett.Google Scholar
  5. Bender, L. (1973). The life course of children with schizophrenia.American Journal of Psychiatry, 130, 783–786.Google Scholar
  6. DeMeyer, M., Hingtgen, J., & Jackson, K. (1981). Infantile autism: A decade of research.Schizophrenia Bulletin, 7, 388–451.Google Scholar
  7. Disimoni, F. (1978).The Token Test for Children. Boston: Teaching Resources.Google Scholar
  8. Eisenberg, L. (1956). The autistic child in adolescence.American Journal of Psychiatry, 12, 607–612.Google Scholar
  9. Gajzago, C., & Prior, M. (1974). Two cases of recovery in Kanner Syndrome.Archives of General Psychiatry, 31, 264–268.Google Scholar
  10. Grant, D. A., & Berry, E. A. (1981).Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  11. Herjanic, B., & Reich, W. (1982). Development of a structured psychiatric interview for children: Agreement between parent and child on individual symptoms.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 10, 307–324.Google Scholar
  12. Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbances of affective contact.Nervous Child 2, 217–250.Google Scholar
  13. Kanner, L. (1971). Follow-up study of eleven children originally reported in 1943.Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 1, 119–145.Google Scholar
  14. Kanner, L., Rodriguez, A., & Ashenden, B. (1972). How far can autistic children go in matters of social adaptation?Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 2, 9–33.Google Scholar
  15. Lotter, V. (1974). Factors related to outcome in autistic children.Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 4, 263–277.Google Scholar
  16. Lotter, V. (1978). Follow-up studies. In M. Rutter & E. Schopler (eds.),Autism: A reappraisal of concepts and treatment (pp. 475–495). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  17. Matthews, C. G., & Klove, H. (1964).Instruction Manual for the Adult Neuropsychology Test Battery. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Medical School.Google Scholar
  18. Prudo R., & Munroe Blum, H. (1987). Five year outcome and prognosis in schizophrenia: A report from the London Field Research Centre of the International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia.British Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 345–354.Google Scholar
  19. Rumsey, J. M. (1985). Conceptual problem solving in highly verbal nonretarded autistic men.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 15, 23–26.Google Scholar
  20. Rumsey, J. M., Rapoport, J. L., & Sceery, W. R. (1985). Autistic children as adults: psychiatric, sicuak and behavioral outcomes.Journal of American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 24, 465–473.Google Scholar
  21. Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (1984).Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  22. Szatmari, P., Bartolucci, G., & Bremner, R. (1989). Asperger's syndrome and autism: Comparisons on early history and outcome.Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology.Google Scholar
  23. Tari, A., Clewes, J., & Semple, S. (1985).Annotated Bibliography of Autism 1943–1983. Guelph, Ontario: Society for Autistic Children.Google Scholar
  24. Terman, L. M., & Merrill, M. A. (1973)Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. Manual for the Third Revision, Form L-M. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  25. Wechsler, D. (1981).WAIS-R manual. New York: Psychological Corp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Szatmari
    • 1
  • G. Bartolucci
    • 1
  • R. Bremner
    • 1
  • S. Bond
    • 1
  • S. Rich
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, Chedoke-McMaster HospitalsMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada

Personalised recommendations