Journal of Molecular Evolution

, Volume 42, Issue 2, pp 145–152

comparison between the complete mitochondrial DNA sequences ofHomo and the common chimpanzee based on nonchimeric sequences

  • Ulfur Arnason
  • Xiufeng Xu
  • Anette Gullberg
Articles

Abstract

The complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecules ofHomo and of the common chimpanzee were sequenced. Each sequence was established from tissue of one individual and thus nonchimeric. Both sequences were assembled in their entirety from natural (not PCR amplified) clones. Comparison with sequences in the literature identified the chimpanzee specimen asPan troglodytes verus, the West African variety of the species. The nucleotide difference between the complete human and chimpanzee sequences is 8.9%. The difference between the control regions of the two sequences is 13.9% and that between the remaining portions of the sequences 8.5%. The mean amino acid difference between the inferred products of the 13 peptide-coding genes is 4.4%. Sequences of the complete control regions, the complete 12S rRNA genes, the complete cytochromeb genes, and portions of the NADH4 and NADH5 genes of two other chimpanzee specimens showed that they were similar but strikingly different from the same regions of the completely sequenced molecule fromPan troglodytes verus. The two specimens were identified asPan troglodytes troglodytes, the Central African variety of the common chimpanzee.

Key words

Mitochondrial DNA Nonchimeric sequences Molecular evolution Homo Chimpanzee 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson S, Bankier AT, Barrell BG, de Bruijn MHL, Coulson AR, Drouin J, Eperon IC, Nierlich DP, Roe BA, Sanger F, Schreier PH, Smith AJH, Staden R, Young IG (1981) Sequence and organisation of the human mitochondrial genome. Nature 290:457–465Google Scholar
  2. Arnason U, Gullberg A, Widegren B (1991) The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial DNA of the fin whale,Balaenoptera physalus. J Mol Evol 33:556–568Google Scholar
  3. Arnason U, Spilliaert R, Palsdottir A, Arnason A (1991a) Molecular identification of hybrids between the two largest whale species, the blue (Balaenoptera musculus) and the fin whale (B. physalus). Hereditas 115:183–189Google Scholar
  4. Arnason U, Johnsson E (1992) The complete mitochondrial sequence of the harbour seal,Phoca vitulina. J Mol Evol 34:493–505Google Scholar
  5. Arnason U, Gullberg A (1993) Comparison between the complete mtDNA sequences of the blue and the fin whale, two species that can hybridize in nature. J Mol Evol 37:312–322Google Scholar
  6. Arnason U, Gullberg A, Johnsson E, Ledje C (1993) The nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial DNA molecule of the grey seal,Halichoerus grypus, and a comparison with mitochondrial sequences of other true seals. J Mol Evol 37:323–330Google Scholar
  7. Arnason U, Xu X, Gullberg A, Graur A (1996) The “Phoca standard”: an external molecular reference for calibrating recent evolutionary divergences. J Mol Evol (in press)Google Scholar
  8. Foran DR, Hixson JE, Brown WM (1988) Comparison of ape and human sequences that regulate mitochondrial DNA transcription and D-loop DNA synthesis. Nucleic Acids Res 16:5841–5861Google Scholar
  9. Goodman M (1963) Man's place in the phylogeny of primates as reflected in serum proteins. In: Washburn SL (ed) Classification and human evolution. Aldine Press, Chicago, pp 204–234Google Scholar
  10. Goodman M (1974) Biochemical evidence on hominid phylogeny. Ann Rev Anthropol 3:203–226Google Scholar
  11. Goodman M (1976) Towards a genealogical description of the primates. In: Goodman M, Tashian RE (eds) Molecular anthropology. Plenum Press, New York, pp 321–353Google Scholar
  12. Hixson JE, Brown WM (1986) A comparison of the small ribosomal RNA genes from the mitochondrial DNA of great apes and humans: sequence, structure, evolution, and phylogenetic implications. Mol Biol Evol 3:1–18Google Scholar
  13. Horai S, Hayasaka K, Kondo R, Tsugane K, Takahata N (1995) Recent African origin of modern humans revealed by complete sequences of hominoid mitochondrial DNAs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92:532–536Google Scholar
  14. Irwin DM, Kocher TD, Wilson AC (1991) Evolution of the cytochromeb gene of mammals. J Mol Evol 32:128–144Google Scholar
  15. Kappelman J, Kelley J, Pilbeam D, Sheikh KA, Ward S, Anwar M, Barry JC, Brown B, Hake P, Johnson NM, Raza SM, Shah SMI (1991) The earliest occurrence ofSivapithecus from the middle Miocene Chinji Formation of Pakistan. J Hum Evol 21:61–73Google Scholar
  16. Kocher TD, Wilson AC (1991) Sequence evolution in mitochondrial DNA in humans and chimpanzees: control region and a proteincoding region. In: Osawa S, Honjo T (eds) Evolution of life: fossils, molecules and culture. Springer, Tokyo, pp 391–413Google Scholar
  17. Morin PA, Moore JJ, Chakraborty R, Jin L, Goodall J, Woodruff DS (1994) Kin selection, social structure, gene flow and the evolution of chimpanzees. Science 265:1193–1201Google Scholar
  18. Neefs J-M, Van de Peer Y, De Rijk P, Chapelle S, De Wachter R (1993) Compilation of small ribosomal subunit RNA structures. Nucleic Acids Res 21:3025–3049Google Scholar
  19. Ozawa T, Tanaka M, Sugiyama S, Ino H, Ohno K, Hattori K, Ohbayashi T, Ito T, Deguchi H, Kawamura K, Nakase Y, Hashiba K (1991) Patients with idiopathic cardiomyopathy belong to the same mitochondrial DNA gene family of Parkinson's disease and mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 177:518–525Google Scholar
  20. Ruvolo M, Pan D, Zehr S, Goldberg TD, Disotell TR (1994) Gene trees and hominoid phylogeny. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:8900–8904Google Scholar
  21. Sarich VM, Wilson AC (1967) Immunological time-scale for hominid evolution. Science 158:1200–1203Google Scholar
  22. Sarich VM, Cronin JE (1976) Molecular systematics of the primates. In: Goodman M, Tashian RE (eds) Molecular anthropology. Plenum Press, New York, pp 141–170Google Scholar
  23. Sibley CG, Ahlquist JE (1984) The phylogeny of hominoid primates, as indicated by DNA-DNA hybridization. J Mol Evol 20:2–15Google Scholar
  24. Spilliaert R, Vikingsson G, Arnason U, Palsdottir A, Sigurjonsson J, Arnason A (1991) Species hybridization between a female blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) and a male fin whale (B. physalus): molecular and morphological documentation. J Hered 82:269–274Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ulfur Arnason
    • 1
  • Xiufeng Xu
    • 1
  • Anette Gullberg
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Evolutionary Molecular SystematicsUniversity of LundLundSweden

Personalised recommendations