Behavior Genetics

, Volume 25, Issue 2, pp 133–147 | Cite as

Personality, psychopathology, and nicotine response as mediators of the genetics of smoking

  • David G. Gilbert
  • Brenda O. Gilbert


Individual differences in psychopathology, personality, and nicotine responsitivity and their biological bases are evaluated as mechanisms potentially mediating smoking heritability. Smokers are more likely to be high in neurotic traits (e.g., depression, anxiety, anger) and in social alienation (psychoticism, impulsivity, unsocialized sensation-seeking, low conscientiousness, low agreeableness) and low in achievement/socioeconomic status. Psychological and biological mechanisms putatively mediating these associations are reviewed. It is concluded that a number of relatively indirect and complex processes, as well as more direct (e.g., self-medication for psychopathology, nicotine sensitivity), mediate the inheritance of smoking behavior.

Key Words

Smoking nicotine genetics personality psychopathology emotion stress 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adler, N. E., Boyce, T., Chesney, M. A., Cohen, S., Folkman, S., Kahn, R. L., and Symme, S. L. (1994). Socioeconomic status and health.Am. Psychol. 49:15–24.Google Scholar
  2. Anda, R. F., Williamson, D. F., Escobedo, L. G., Mast, E. E., Giovino, G. A., and Remington, P. L. (1990). Depression and the dynamics of smoking.JAMA 264:1541–1545.Google Scholar
  3. Angst, M. S. (1979). Risikofaktoren fur starkes Zigarettenrauchen bei jungen Mannern.J. Suisse Med. 109:115–122.Google Scholar
  4. Ashton, H., Millman, J. E., Telford, R., and Thompson, J. W. (1974). The effects of caffeine, nitrazepam, and cigarette smoking on the contingent negative variation in man.Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 37:59–71.Google Scholar
  5. Balfour, D. J. K. (1991). The neurochemical mechanisms underlying nicotine tolerance and dependence. In Pratt, J. A. (ed.),The Biological Bases of Drug Tolerance and Dependence. Academic Press, New York, pp. 121–151.Google Scholar
  6. Bass, C. (1988). Personality correlates of smoking behavior in men with heart disease.Personal. Indiv. Diff. 9:397–400.Google Scholar
  7. Binnie, A., and Comer, K. (1978). The effects of cigarette smoking on the contingent negative variation (CNV) and eye movement. In Thornton R., (ed.),Smoking Behaviour: Physiological and Psychological Influences, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp. 69–75.Google Scholar
  8. Brackenridge, C. J., and Bloch, S. (1972). Smoking in medical students.J. Psychosom. Res. 16:35–40.Google Scholar
  9. Breslau, N., Kilbey, M. M., and Andreski, P. (1991). Nicotine dependence, major depression, and anxiety in young adults.Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 48:1069–1074.Google Scholar
  10. Breslau, N., Kilbey, M. M., and Andreski, P. (1992). Nicotine withdrawal symptoms and psychiatric disorders: Findings from an epidemiologic study of young adults.Am. J. Psychiat. 149:464–469.Google Scholar
  11. Breslau, N., Kilbey, M. M., and Andreski, P. (1993). Vulnerability to psychopathology in nicotine-dependent smokers: An epidemiologic study of young adults.Am. J. Psychiat. 150:941–946.Google Scholar
  12. Breslau, N., Kilbey, M. M., and Andreski, P. (1994). DSM-III-R nicotine dependence in young adults: Prevalence, correlates, and associated psychiatric disorders.Addiction (in press).Google Scholar
  13. Brook, J. S., Gordon, A. S., and Brook, D. W. (1987). Fathers and daughters: Their relationship and personality characteristics associated with the daughter's smoking behavior.J. Genet. Psychol. 148:31–44.Google Scholar
  14. Brook, J. S., Whiteman, M., Gordon, A. S., and Brook, D. W. (1983). Fathers and sons: Their relationship and personality characteristics associated with the son's smoking behavior.J. Genet. Psychol. 142:271–281.Google Scholar
  15. Carey, G., and DiLalla, D. L. (1994). Personality and psychopathology: Genetic perspectives.J. Abnorm. Psychol. 103:32–43.Google Scholar
  16. Carmelli, D., Swan, G. E., Robinette, D., and Fabsitz, R. R. (1990). Heritability of substance use in the NAS-NRTC Twin Registry.Acta Genet. Med. Gemello. (Roma) 39:91–98.Google Scholar
  17. Carmelli, D., Swan, G. E., Robinette, D., and Fabsitz, R. R. (1992). Genetic influence on smoking—A study of male twins.N. Engl. J. Med. 327:829–833.Google Scholar
  18. Chassin, L., Presson, C. C., Sherman, S. Olshavsky, R. W. (1984). Predicting the onset of cigarette smoking in adolescents: A longitudinal study.J. Appl. Soc. Psychol. 14:224–243.Google Scholar
  19. Cherry, N., and Kiernan, K. (1976). Personality scores and smoking behavior: A longitudinal study.Br. J. Prev. Soc. Med. 30:123–131.Google Scholar
  20. Cinciripini, P. M., Lapitsky, L., Seay, S., Wallfisch, A., Meyer, W. J., and Van Vunakis, H. (1994). A placebo controlled evaluation of the effects of buspirone on smoking cessation: Differences between high and low anxiety smokers (submitted for publication).Google Scholar
  21. Clarke, P. B. S. (1990). The central pharmacology of nicotine: Electrophysiological approaches. In Wonnacott, S., Russell, M. A. H., and Stolerman, I. P. (eds.),Nicotine Psychopharmacology: Molecular, Cellular and Behavioural Aspects, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 158–193.Google Scholar
  22. Costa, P. T., and McCrae, R. R. (1992).Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NDO-FFI) Professional Manual, Psychological Assessment Resources, Odessa, FL.Google Scholar
  23. Covey, L. S., and Tam, D. (1990). Depressive mood, the single-parent home, and adolescent cigarette smoking.Am. J. Public Health 80:1330–1333.Google Scholar
  24. Covey, L. S., Glassman, A. H., and Stetner, F. (1990). Depression and depressive symptoms in smoking cessation.Comp. Psychiat. 31:350–354.Google Scholar
  25. Davidson, R. J. (1984). Hemispheric asymmetry and emotion. In Scherer, K. R., and Ekman, P. (eds.),Approaches to Emotion, Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 39–57.Google Scholar
  26. Eaves, L. J., and Eysenck, H. J. (1980). The inheritance of smoking: Evidence from twin studies. In Eysenck, H. J. (ed.),The Causes and Effects of Smoking, Maurice Temple Smith, London, pp. 140–157.Google Scholar
  27. Eaves, L. J., Eysenck, H. J., and Martin, N. (1989).Genes, Culture and Personality, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Edwards, N. B., Simmons, R. C., Rosenthal, T. L., Hoon, P. W., and Downs, J. M. (1988). Doxepin in the treatment of nicotine withdrawal.Psychosomatics 29:203–206.Google Scholar
  29. Epstein, L., and Collins, F. (1977). The measurement of situational influence of smoking.Addict. Behav. 2:47–54.Google Scholar
  30. Eysenck, H. J. (1973). Personality and the maintenance of the smoking habit. In Dunn, W. L. (ed.),Smoking Behavior: Motives and Incentives, V. H. Winston, Washington, DC, pp. 113–146.Google Scholar
  31. Eysenck, H. J. (1980).The Causes and Effects of Smoking. Maurice Temple Smith, London.Google Scholar
  32. Eysenck, H. J., and Eysenck, M. W. (1985).Personality and Individual Differences: A Natural Sciences Approach, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  33. Eysenck, H. J., and Eysenck, S. B. G. (1975).Manual of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Educational and Industrial Testing Service, San Diego.Google Scholar
  34. Eysenck, H. J., and O'Connor, K. (1979). Smoking arousal and personality. In Remond, A., and Izard, C. (eds.),Electrophysiological Effects of Nicotine, Elsevier/North Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 147–157.Google Scholar
  35. Gilbert, D. G. (1987). Effects of smoking and nicotine on EEG lateralization as a function of personality.Personal. Indiv. Diff. 8:933–941.Google Scholar
  36. Gilbert, D. G. (1988). EEG and personality differences between smokers and nonsmokers.Personal. Indiv. Diff. 9:659–665.Google Scholar
  37. Gilbert, D. G. (1991). A personality × personality × setting biosocial model of interpersonal affect and communication. In Gilbert, D. G., Connolly, J. J. (eds.),Personality, Social Skills, and Psychopathology: An Individual Differences Approach, Plenum, New York, pp. 107–135.Google Scholar
  38. Gilbert, D. G. (1995).Smoking; Individual Differences, Psychopathology, and Emotion, Taylor & Francis, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  39. Gilbert, D. G., and Hagen, R. L. (1985). Electrodermal responses tomovie stressors: Nicotine × extraversion interactions.Personal. Indiv. Diff. 6:573–578.Google Scholar
  40. Gilbert, D. G., and Welser, R. (1989). Emotion, anxiety and smoking. In Ney, T., and Gale, A. (eds.),Smoking and Human Behavior, Wiley, Chichester, pp. 171–196.Google Scholar
  41. Gilbert, D. G., Robinson, J. H., Chamberlin, C. L., and Spielberger, C. D. (1989). Effects of smoking/nicotine on anxiety, heart rate, and lateralization of EEG during a stressful move.Psychophysiology 26:311–320.Google Scholar
  42. Gilbert, D. G., Meliska, C. J., Welser, R., Scott, S., Jensen, R. A., and Meliska, J. (1992).Individual differences in the effects of smoking cessation on EEG, mood and vigilance. Paper presented at the Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the Society of Behavioral Medicine, New York, Mar.Google Scholar
  43. Gilbert, D. G., Gehlbach, B., Estes, S. L., Rabinovich, N., and Detwiler, R. J. (1994a).Effects of smoking deprivation and a quantified dose of tobacco smoke on EEG power and lateralization as a function of depression and habitual nicotine intake. Paper presented at the Thirty—Fourth Annual Meeting of the Society for Psychophysiological Research, Atlanta, GA.Psychophysiology 31:S50 (abstr.).Google Scholar
  44. Gilbert, D. G., Meliska, C. J., Welser, R., and Estes, S. L. (1994b). Depression, personality, and gender influence EEG, cortisol, beta-endorphin, heart rate, and subjective responses to smoking multiple cigarettes.Personal. Indiv. Diff. 16:247–264.Google Scholar
  45. Glassman, A. H. (1993). Cigarette smoking: Implications for psychiatric illness.Am. J. Psychiatr. 150(86):507–510.Google Scholar
  46. Glassman, A. H., Jackson, W. K., Walsh, B. T., Roose, S. P., and Rosenfeld, B. (1984). Cigarette craving, smoking withdrawal and clonidine.Science 226:864–867.Google Scholar
  47. Glassman, A. H., Helzer, J. E., Covey, L. S., Cottler, L. B., Stetner, F., Tipp, J. E., and Johnson, M. (1990). Smoking, smoking cessation, and major depression.JAMA 264:1546–1549.Google Scholar
  48. Glynn, S. H., and Sussman, S. (1990). Why patients smoke (letter).Hosp. Commun. Psychiat. 41:1027.Google Scholar
  49. Goff, D. C., Henderson, D. C., and Amico, E. (1992). Cigarette smoking in schizophrenia: Relationship to psychopathology and medication side effects.Am. J. Psychiat. 149:1189–1194.Google Scholar
  50. Golding, J. F. (1988). Effects of cigarette smoking on resting EEG, visual evoked potential and photic driving.Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 29:23–32.Google Scholar
  51. Golding, J., and Mangan, G. L. (1982). Arousing and de-arousing effects of cigarette smoking under conditions of stress and mild sensory isolation.Psychophysiology 19:449–456.Google Scholar
  52. Golding, J. F., Harpur, T., and Brent-Smith, H. (1983). Personality, drinking and drug-taking correlates of cigarette smoking.Personal. Indiv. Diff. 6:703–706.Google Scholar
  53. Gopalaswamy, A. K., and Morgan, R. (1986). Smoking in chronic schizophrenia (letter).Br. J. Psychiat. 149:523.Google Scholar
  54. Gray, J. A. (1981). A critique of Eysenck's theory of personality. In Eysenck, H. J. (ed.),A Model for Personality Springer, New York, pp. 246–276.Google Scholar
  55. Guilford, J. S. (1966).Factors related to successful abstinence from smoking: Final report. U.S. Public Health Service, Division of Chronic Diseases, Bureau of State Services, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  56. Gynther, L., Hewitt, J. K., Heath, A. C., and Eaves, L. (1993, July).Genetic and environmental influences on smoking and motives for smoking. Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Annual Meeting of the Behavior Genetics Association, Sidney, Australia, p. 27.Google Scholar
  57. Hannah, M. C., Hopper, J. L., and Mathews, J. D. (1985). Twin concordance for a binary trait. II. Nested analysis of ever-smoking and ex-smoking traits and unnested analysis of a “committed smoking” trait.Am. J. Hum. Genet. 37:153–165.Google Scholar
  58. Heath, A. C., and Madden, P. A. F. (1995). Genetic influences on smoking behavior. In Turner, J. R., Cardon, L. R., and Hewitt, J. K. (eds.), Behavior Genetic Applications in Behavioral Medicine Research, Plenum, New York (in press).Google Scholar
  59. Hughes, J. R. (1986). Genetics of smoking: A brief review.Behav. Ther. 17:335–345.Google Scholar
  60. Hughes, J. R., Hatsukami, D. K., Mitchell, J. E., and Dahlgren, L. A. (1986). Prevalence of smoking among psychiatric outpatients.Am. J. Psychiat. 143:993–997.Google Scholar
  61. Imperato, A., Puglisi-Allegra, S., Casolini, P., Zocchi, A., and Angelucci, L. (1989). Stress-induced enhancement of dopamine and acetylcholine release in limbic structure, role of corticosterone.Eur. J. Pharmacol. 165:337–339.Google Scholar
  62. Istvan, J., and Matarazzo, J. D. (1984). Tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine use: A review of their interrelationships.Psychol. Bull. 95:301–326.Google Scholar
  63. Kandel, D. B., and Davies, M. (1986). Adult sequelae of adolescent depressive symptoms.Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 43:255–262.Google Scholar
  64. Kaprio, J., Hammer, N., Koskenvuo, M., Floderns-Myrhed, B., Langinvainia, H., and Sarna, S. (1982). Cigarette smoking and alcohol use in Finland and Sweden: A cross-national twin study.Int. J. Epidemiol. 11:378–386.Google Scholar
  65. Kellam, S. G., Ensminger, M. E., and Simon, M. B. (1980). Mental health in first grade and teenage drug, alcohol, and cigarette use.Drug Alcohol Depend. 5:273–304.Google Scholar
  66. Kendler, K. S., Neale, M. C., Kessler, R. C., Heath, A. C., and Eaves, L. J. (1992). Major depression and generalized anxiety disorder: Same genes, (partly) different environments?Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 49:716–722.Google Scholar
  67. Kendler, K. S., Neale, M. C., MacLean, C. J., Heath, A. C., Eaves, L. J., and Kessler, R. C. (1993). Smoking and major depression: A causal analysis.Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 50:36–43.Google Scholar
  68. Kinnunen, T., Doherty, K., Militello, F. S., and Garvey, A. J. (1994). Quitting smoking and feeling blue: Nicotine replacement as an aid for the depressed (summary). Proceedings of the Society of Behavioral Medicine's Fifteenth Anniversary Meeting.Ann. Behav. Med. 16:S68.Google Scholar
  69. Knott, V. J. (1979). Personality, arousal and individual differences in cigarette smoking.Psychol. Rep. 45:423–428.Google Scholar
  70. Koopmans, J. R., Boomsma, D. I., van Doornen, L. J. P., and Orlebeke, J. F. (1993).Alcohol use, smoking and personality in adolescent twins. Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Annual Meeting of the Behavior Genetics Association, Sidney, Australia, July, p. 34.Google Scholar
  71. Lerner, J. V., and Vicary, J. R. (1984). Difficult temperament and drug use: Analyses from the New York Longitudinal Study.J. Drug Educ. 14:1–7.Google Scholar
  72. Lichtenstein, E., Antonuccio, D. O., and Rainwater, G. (1977).Unkicking the habit: The resumption of cigarette smoking. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Western Psychological Association, Seattle, WA, Apr.Google Scholar
  73. Loehlin, J. C. (1992).Genes and Environment in Personality Development, Sage, Newbury Park, CA.Google Scholar
  74. Lohr, J. B., and Flynn, K. (1992). Smoking and schizophrenia.Schizo. Res. 8:93–102.Google Scholar
  75. Madden, P. A., Heath, A. C., Bucholz, K. K., Dinwiddie, S. H., Dunne, M. P., and Martin, N. G. (1993).Novelty seeking and the genetic determinants of smoking initiation and problems related to alcohol use in female twins. Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Annual Meeting of the Behavior Genetics Association, Sidney, Australia, July, p. 37.Google Scholar
  76. Marks, M. J., Stitzel, J. A., and Collins, A. C. (1989). Genetic influences on nicotine responses.Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 33:667–668.Google Scholar
  77. Marlatt, G. A., and Gordon, J. R. (1980). Determinants of relapse: Implications for the maintenance of behavior change. In Davidson, P. O., and Davidson, S. M. (eds.),Behavioral Medicine: Changing Health Lifestyles, Brunner/Mazel, New York, pp. 410–452.Google Scholar
  78. Marmot, M. G., Smith, G. D., Stansfeld, S., Patel, C., North, F., Head, J., White, I., Brunner, E., and Feeney, A. (1991). Health inequalities among British civil servants: The Whitehall II study.Lancet 337:1387–1393.Google Scholar
  79. Martin, M. (1985). Neuroticism as predisposition toward depression: A cognitive mechanism.Personal. Indiv. Diff. 6:353–365.Google Scholar
  80. Masson, C. L., and Gilbert, D. G. (1990). Cardiovascular responses to a quantified dose of nicotine as a function of personality and nicotine tolerance.J. Behav. Med. 13:505–521.Google Scholar
  81. Masterson, F., and O'Shea, B. (1984). Smoking and malignancy in schizophrenia.Br. J. Psychiat. 145:429–432.Google Scholar
  82. Matarazzo, J. D., and Saslow, G. (1960). Psychological and related characteristics of smokers and non-smokers.Psychol. Bull. 57:493–513.Google Scholar
  83. McCrae, R. R., Costa, P. T., and Bosse, R. (1978). Anxiety, extraversion, and smoking.Br. J. Soc. Clin. Psychol. 17:269–273.Google Scholar
  84. McGee, L., and Newcomb, M. D. (1992). General deviance syndrome: Expanded hierarchical evaluations at four ages from early adolescence to adulthood.J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 60:766–776.Google Scholar
  85. McManus, I. C., and Weeks, S. J. (1982). Smoking, personality and reasons for smoking.Psychol. Med. 12:349–356.Google Scholar
  86. Munck, A., Guyre, P. M., and Holbrook, N. K. (1984). Physiological functions of glucocorticoids in stress and their relation to pharmacological actions.Endocrine Rev. 5:25–44.Google Scholar
  87. O'Connor, K. (1980). Individual differences in situational preference amongst smokers.Personal. Indiv. Diff. 1:249–257.Google Scholar
  88. O'Farrell, T. J., Connors, G. J., and Upper, D. (1983). Addictive behaviors among hospitalized schizophrenic patients.Addict. Behav. 8:329–333.Google Scholar
  89. Parks, K. R. (1984). Smoking and the Eysenck personality dimensions: An interactive model.Psychol. Med. 14:825–834.Google Scholar
  90. Pauly, J. R., Grun, E. U., and Collins, A. C. (1992). Glucocorticoid regulation of sensitivity to nicotine. In Lippiello, P. M., Collins, A. C., and Gray, J. A. (eds.),The Biology of Nicotine: Current Research Issues, Raven Press, New York, pp. 121–155.Google Scholar
  91. Piazza, P. V., Deminiere, J.-M., Maccari, S., Moal, M. Le, Mormede, P., and Simon, H. (1991). Individual vulnerability to drug self-administration: Action of corticosterone on dopaminergic systems as a possible pathophysiological mechanism. In Willner, P., and Scheel-Kruger, J. (eds.),The Mesolimbic Dopamine System: From Motivation to Action, Wiley, Chichester, pp. 473–495.Google Scholar
  92. Pierce, J. P., Fiore, M. C., Novotny, T. E., Hatziandreu, E. J., and Davis, R. M. (1989). Trends in cigarette smoking in the United States: Educational differences are increasing.JAMA 261:56–60.Google Scholar
  93. Pohl, R., Yeragani, V. K., Balon, R., Lycaki, H., and McBride, R. (1992). Smoking in patients with panic disorder.Psychiat. Res. 43:253–262.Google Scholar
  94. Pomerleau, O. F., Adkins, D., and Pertschuk, M. (1978). Predictors of outcome and recidivism in smoking cessation treatment.Addict. Behav. 3:65–70.Google Scholar
  95. Pomerleau, O. F., Collins, A. C., Shiffman, S., and Pomerleau, C. S. (1993). Why some people smoke and others do not: New perspectives.J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 61:723–731.Google Scholar
  96. Pritchard, W. S. (1991). The link between smoking and P: A serotonergic hypothesis.Personal. Indiv. Diff. 12:1187–1204.Google Scholar
  97. Pritchard, W. S., and Kay, D. L. C. (1993). Personality and smoking motivation of U.S. smokers as measured by the state-trait personality inventory, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and Spielberger's Smoking Motivation Questionnaire.Personal. Indiv. Diff. 14:629–637.Google Scholar
  98. Prochazka, A. V., Petty, T. L., Nett, L., Silvers, G. W., Sachs, D. P. L., Rennard, S. I., Daughton, D. M., Grimm, R. H., and Heim, C. (1992). Transdermal clonidine reduced some withdrawal symptoms but did not increase smoking cessation.Arch. Intern. Med. 152:2065–2069.Google Scholar
  99. Robinson, T. N., Killen, J. D., Taylor, C. B., Telch, M. J., Bryson, S. W., Saylor, K. E., Maron, D. J., Maccoby, N., and Farquhar, J. W. (1987). Perspectives on adolescent substance use: A defined population study.JAMA 258:2072–2076.Google Scholar
  100. Rose, J. E., Ananda, S., and Jarvik, M. E. (1983). Cigarette smoking during anxiety-provoking and monotonous tasks.Addict. Behav. 8:353–359.Google Scholar
  101. Rosecrans, J., and Karan, L. D. (1993). Neurobehavioral mechanisms of nicotine action: Role in the initiation and maintenance of tobacco dependence.J. Substance Abuse Treat. 10:161–170.Google Scholar
  102. Russell, M. A. H. (1994).Evaluating the newest approaches to nicotine withdrawal therapy (nicotine oral inhaler, nicotine nasal spray, combination therapy). Paper presented during symposium at the Fifteenth Annual Meeting of the Society of Behavioral Medicine, Boston, Mar.Google Scholar
  103. Scarr, S., and McCartney, K. (1983). How people make their own environments: A theory of genotype→environment effects.Child Dev. 54:424–435.Google Scholar
  104. Schachter, S., Silverstein, B., and Perlick, D. (1977). Psychological and pharmacological explanations of smoking under stress.J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 106:31–40.Google Scholar
  105. Seltzer, C., and Oechsli, F. (1985). Psychosocial characteristics of adolescent smokers before they started smoking: Evidence of self-selection: A prospective study.J. Chron. Dis. 38:17–26.Google Scholar
  106. Shiffman, S. (1982). Relapse following smoking cessation: A situational analysis.J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 50:71–86.Google Scholar
  107. Shiffman, S. A. (1986). Cluster analytic classification of smoking relapse episodes.Addict. Behav. 11:295–307.Google Scholar
  108. Shiffman, S. (1989). Tobacco “chippers”: individual differences in tobacco dependence.Psychopharmacology 97:535–538.Google Scholar
  109. Sieber, M. F., and Angst, J. (1990). Alcohol, tobacco and cannabis: 12-year longitudinal associations with antecedent social context and personality.Drug Alcohol Depend. 25:281–292.Google Scholar
  110. Smith, G. M. (1970). Personality and smoking: A review of the empirical literature. In Hunt, W. A. (ed.),Learning Mechanisms in Smoking, Chicago, Aldine, pp. 42–61.Google Scholar
  111. Smith, B. D., Wilson, R. J., and Jones, B. E. (1983). Extraversion and multiple levels of caffeine-induced arousal: Effects of overhabituation and dishabituation.Psychopysiology 20:29–34.Google Scholar
  112. Spielberger, C. D. (1986). Psychological determinants of smoking behavior. In Tollison, R. D. (ed.),Smoking and Society: Toward a More Balanced Assessment, D. C. Health, Lexington, MA, pp. 89–134.Google Scholar
  113. Spielberger, C. D., and Jacobs, G. A. (1982). Personality and smoking behavior.J. Personal. Assess. 46:396–403.Google Scholar
  114. Spring, B., Pingitore, R., Kessler, K., Mahableshwarker, A., Bruckner, E., Kohlbeck, and Braun, J. (1993). Fluoxetine prevents withdrawal dysphoria but not anticipatory anxiety about quitting smoking. Proceedings of the fourteenth annual meeting of the Society of Behavioral Medicine.Ann. Behav. Med. 15:129.Google Scholar
  115. Stanaway, R. G., and Watson, D. W. (1981). Smoking and personality: A factorial study.Br. J. Clin. Psychol. 20:213–214.Google Scholar
  116. Stepney, R. (1982). Human smoking behavior and the development of dependence on tobacco smoking.Pharmacol. Ther. 15:183–206.Google Scholar
  117. Surawy, C., and Cox, T. (1987). Smoking under natural conditions: a diary study.Personal. Indiv. Diff. 8:33–41.Google Scholar
  118. Tucker, D. M., and Williamson, P. A. (1984). Asymmetric neural control systems in human self-regulation.Psychol. Rev. 91:185–215.Google Scholar
  119. Vandenberg, S. G., Singer, S. M., and Pauls, D. L. (1986).The Heredity of Behavior Disorders in Adults and Children, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  120. Waal-Manning, H. J., and de Hammel, F. A. (1978). Smoking habit and psychometric scores: A community study.New Zeal. Med. J. 88:188–191.Google Scholar
  121. Warburton, D. M., Revell, A., and Walters, A. C. (1988). In Rand, M. J., and Thurau, K. (eds.),The Pharmacology of icotine, IRL Press, pp. 359–373.Google Scholar
  122. West, R., Hajek, P., and McNeill, A. (1991). Effect of buspirone on cigarette withdrawal symptoms and short-term abstinence rates in a smokers clinic.Psychopharmacology 104:91–96.Google Scholar
  123. Zelman, D. C., Brandon, T. H., Jorenby, D. E., and Baker, T. B. (1992). Measures of affect and nicotine dependence predict differential response to smoking cessation treatments.J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 60:943–952.Google Scholar
  124. Zuckerman, M. (1979).Sensation Seeking: Beyond the Optimal Level of Arousal, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.Google Scholar
  125. Zuckerman, M. (1991).Psychobiology of Personality, Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  126. Zuckerman, M. (1992). What is a basic factor and which factors are basic? Turtles all the way down.Personal. Indiv. Diff. 13:675–681.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • David G. Gilbert
    • 1
  • Brenda O. Gilbert
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologySouthern Illinois UniversityCarbondale

Personalised recommendations