Advertisement

Behavior Genetics

, Volume 25, Issue 2, pp 95–101 | Cite as

Psychiatric comorbidity of smoking and nicotine dependence

  • Naomi Breslau
Article

Abstract

Recent epidemiologic studies have revealed that comorbidity of psychiatric disorders is far more pervasive than previously suspected. Strong associations have been reported between specific substance use disorders and between any mental disorder and any substance use disorder. This report focuses on comorbidity of nicotine dependence, a substance use disorder on which little epidemiologic information is available. Data come from an epidemiologic study of approximately 1000 young adults in southeast Michigan, in which the NIMH-DIS, revised according to DSM-III-R, was used. Lifetime prevalence of nicotine dependence was 20%. Males and females with nicotine dependence had increased odds for alcohol and illicit drug disorders, major depression, and anxiety disorders, compared with nondependent smokers and nonsmokers combined. Major depression and any anxiety disorder were associated specifically with nicotine dependence. Increased odds for alcohol or illicit drug disorders were observed also in nondependent smokers, compared to nonsmokers. History of early conduct problems increased the odds for nicotine dependence among smokers. Potential mechanisms in the comorbidity of nicotine dependence are discussed.

Key Words

Smoking nicotine dependence psychiatric comorbidity major depression any anxiety disorder substance use disorders 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association, Committee on Nomenclature and Statistics (1987)Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Third Edition, American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  2. Anda, R. F., Williamson, D. F., Escobedo, L. G., Mast, E. E., Giovino, G. A., and Remington, P. L. (1990). Depression and the dynamics of smoking.JAMA 264:1541–1545.Google Scholar
  3. Andreski, P., and Breslau, N. (1993). Smoking and nicotine dependence in young adults: Differences between blacks and whites.Drug Alcohol Depend. 32:119–125.Google Scholar
  4. Breslau, N., Kilbey, M. M., and Andreski, P. (1991). Nicotine dependence, major depression, and anxiety in young adults.Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 48:1069–1074.Google Scholar
  5. Breslau, N., Fenn, N., and Peterson, E. L. (1993a). Early smoking initiation and nicotine dependence in a cohort of young adults.Drug Alcohol Depend. 33:129–137.Google Scholar
  6. Breslau, N., Kilbey, M. M., and Andreski, P. (1993b). Vulnerability to psychopathology in nicotine-dependent smokers: An epidemiologic study of young adults.Am. J. Psychiatry 150:941–946.Google Scholar
  7. Breslau, N., Kilbey, M. M., and Andreski, P. (1994). DSM-III-R nicotine dependence in young adults: prevalence, correlates, and associated psychiatric disorders.Addiction 89:743–754.Google Scholar
  8. Chilcoat, H. D., Dishion, T. J., and Anthony, J. (1995). Parent monitoring and the incidence of drug sampling in urban elementary school children.Am. J. Epidemiol. 141:25–31.Google Scholar
  9. Cloninger, C. R. (1987). Neurogenetic adaptive mechanisms in alcoholism.Science 236:41–416.Google Scholar
  10. Collins, L. M., Fidler, P. L., Wugalter, S. E., and Long, J. L. (1994). Crossvalidation of latent class models of early substance use onset.Multivar. Behav. Res. (in press).Google Scholar
  11. Fagerström, K. O. (1978). Measuring degree of physical dependency to tobacco smoking with reference to individualization of treatment.Addict. Behav. 3:235–241.Google Scholar
  12. Freeborn, D. K., and Pope, C. R. (1982). Health status, utilization and satisfaction among enrollees in three types of private health insurance plans.Group Health J 3:4–11.Google Scholar
  13. Glassman, A. H. (1993). Cigarette smoking: Implications for psychiatric illness.Am. J. Psychiatry 150(4):546–553.Google Scholar
  14. Glassman, A. H., Stetner, F., Walsh, B. T., Raizman, P. S., Fleiss, J. L., Cooper, T. B., and Covey, L. S. (1988). Heavy smokers, smoking cessation and clonidine: results of a double-blind, randomized trial.JAMA 259:2863–2866.Google Scholar
  15. Glassman, A. H., Helzer, J. E., Covey, L. S., Cottler, L. B., Stetner, F., Tipp, J. E., and Johnson, J. (1990). Smoking, smoking cessation, and major depression.JAMA 264: 1546–1549.Google Scholar
  16. Heath, A. C., Madden, P. A. F., Slutske, W. E., and Martin, N. G. (1995). Personality and the inheritance of smoking behavior: A genetic perspective.Behav Genet. 25:103–117.Google Scholar
  17. Helzer, J. E., Burnam, A., and McEvoy, L. T. (1991). Alcohol abuse and dependence. In Robins, L. N., and Regier, D. A. (eds.),Psychiatric Disorders in America, The Free Press, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Hesselbrock, M. N., Meyer, R. E., and Keener, J. J. (1985). Psychopathology in hospitalized alcoholics.Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 42:1050–1055.Google Scholar
  19. Kandel, C. B., and Logan, J. A. (1984). Patterns of drug use from adolescence to early adulthood. I. Periods of risk for initiation, stabilization and decline in drug use from adolescence to early adulthood.Am. J. Public Health 74: 660–666.Google Scholar
  20. Kendler, K. S., Neale, M. C., MacLean, C. J., Heath, A. C., Eaves, I. J., and Kessler, R. C. (1993). Smoking and major depression: A causal analysis.Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 50:36–43.Google Scholar
  21. McFarland, B. H., Freeborn, D. K., Mulloly, J. P., and Pope, C. R. (1986). Utilization patterns and mortality of HMO enrollees.Med. Care 24:200–208.Google Scholar
  22. Regier, D. A., Farmer, M. E., Rae, D. S., Locke, B. Z., Keith, S. J., Judd, L. L., and Goodwin, F. K. (1990). Comorbidity of mental disorders with alcohol and other drug abuse: Results from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) Study.JAMA 264(19):2511–2518.Google Scholar
  23. Robins, L. N., Helzer, J. E., Cottler, L., and Golding, E. (1989).NIMH Diagnostic interview Schedule, Version III, Revised, Washington University, St. Louis, MO.Google Scholar
  24. Rounsaville, B. J., and Kranzler, H. R. (1989). The DSM-III-R diagnosis of alcoholism. In Tasman, A., Hales, R. E., and Frances, A. J. (eds.),Review of Psychiatry, American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC, Vol. 8, pp. 323–340.Google Scholar
  25. Rounsaville, B. J., Dolnsky, Z. S., Babor, T. F., and Meyer, R. E. (1987). Psychopathology as a predictor of treatment outcome in alcoholics.Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 44:505–513.Google Scholar
  26. Schoenborn, C. A., and Boyd, G. M. (1989). Smoking and other tobacco use: United States 1987.Vital Health Stat.10.Google Scholar
  27. Skinner, H. A., and Allen, B. A. (1982). Alcohol dependence syndrome: measurement and validation.J. Abnorm. Psychol. 91:199–209.Google Scholar
  28. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1988).National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Main Findings, 1985, USDHHS Publ. ADM-1586, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Washington, DC.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Naomi Breslau
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Division of Biostatistics and Research EpidemiologyHenry Ford Health Sciences CenterDetroit
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryCase Western Reserve University School of MedicineCleveland
  3. 3.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Michigan School of MedicineAnn Arbor

Personalised recommendations