International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 14, Issue 3, pp 357–381 | Cite as

The indris of Anjanaharibe-Sud, northeastern Madagascar

  • Urs Thalmann
  • Thomas Geissmann
  • Arsène Simona
  • Thomas Mutschler


During a short field trip to the Special Reserve of Anjanaharibe-Sud in northeastern Madagascar, data concerning pelage coloration, behavior (especially vocalization), and ecology of indris were collected. Anjanaharibe-Sud is the northernmost locality of indri distribution. In comparison to the better-known indris from the southern part of their distribution, the indris in this region show different pelage coloration. Several types of loud vocalizations are analyzed, based on a small sample of tape recordings. Their song structure is more complicated than previously reported, containing distinct sequences of duetting. Data on behavior and ecology were collected by interviewing guides and local inhabitants. Some information contrasts with reports on the more southern indri populations. The conservation status of indris in Anjanaharibe-Sud and the future of the reserve are outlined.

Key Words

indri Madagascar Indri indri vocalization duet song 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Attenborough, D., and Blanchard, G. (1969).Ghost at the End of the Earth—A New Quest for Lemurs, Film, BBC TV, UK, 45 min.Google Scholar
  2. Attenborough, D., and Parsons, C. (1980).Das Leben auf unserer Erde—Das Leben in den Bäumen, Film, BBC TV, UK, 45 min.Google Scholar
  3. Buettner-Janusch, J., and Tattersall, I. (1985). An annotated catalogue of Malagasy primates (Families Lemuridae, Indriidae, Daubentoniidae, Megaladapidae, Cheirogaleidae) in the collections of the American Museum of Natural History.Am. Mus. Novit. (N.Y.) No. 2834 (Nov. 12): 1–45.Google Scholar
  4. Freemann, D. (1978).Affen in Farbe, Südwest Verlag, München. (German edition ofThe Love of Monkeys and Apes, Octopus Books, London, 1977).Google Scholar
  5. Geissmann, T. (1984). Inheritance of song parameters in the gibbon song, analyzed in 2 hybrid gibbons (Hylobates pileatus × H. lar).Folia Primatol. 42: 216–235.Google Scholar
  6. Geissmann, T. (1993).Evolution of Communication in Gibbons (Hylobatidae). Ph.D. thesis, Anthropology Institute, Philosoph. Faculty II, Zürich University, Zürich.Google Scholar
  7. Haimoff, E. H. (1984). Acoustic and organizational features of gibbon songs. In Preuschoft, H., Chivers, D. J., Brockelman, W. Y., and Creel, N. (eds.),The Lesser Apes. Evolutionary and Behavioral Biology, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, pp. 333–353.Google Scholar
  8. Haimoff, E. H. (1986). Convergence in the duetting of monogamous Old World monkeys.J. Hum. Evol. 15: 51–59.Google Scholar
  9. Harcourt, C., and Thornback, J. (1990).Lemurs of Madagascar and the Comoros. The IUCN Red Data Book, IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources), Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
  10. Herzog and Wothe (1989).Urwaldgeister auf Madagaskar—Eine Expedition ins Reich der Lemuren, Film, ZDF, Germany, 45 min.Google Scholar
  11. MacKinnon, J., MacKinnon, K., Child, G., and Thorsell, J. (1986).Managing Protected Areas in the Tropics, IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources), Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
  12. Marshall, J. T., and Marshall, E. R. (1976). Gibbons and their territorial songs.Science 193: 235–237.Google Scholar
  13. Marshall, J., and Sugardjito, J. (1986). Gibbon systematics. In Swindler, D. R., and Erwin, J. (eds.),Comparative Primate Biology, Vol. 1. Systematics, Evolution, and Anatomy, Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 137–185.Google Scholar
  14. Milne-Edwards, A., and Grandidier, A. (1875a). Histoire naturelle des mammifères, Tome I, Texte I. In Grandidier, A. (ed.),Histoire physique, naturelle et politique de Madagascar, Vol. 6. Les indrisinés, Imprimerie Nationale, Paris.Google Scholar
  15. Milne-Edwards, A., and Grandidier, A. (1875b). Histoire naturelle des mammifères, Tome IV, Atlas I. In Grandidier, A. (ed.),Histoire physique, naturelle et politique de Madagascar, Vol. 9, Imprimerie Nationale, Paris.Google Scholar
  16. Nicoll, M. E., and Langrand, O. (1989).Madagascar: Revue de la conservation et des aires protégées, WWF, Gland, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  17. Oliver, W. L. R., and O'Connor, S. M. (1980). Circadian distribution ofIndri indri group vocalizations: A short period sampling at two study sites near Perinet, eastern Madagascar.Dodo J. Jersey Wildl. Preserv. Trust 17: 19–27.Google Scholar
  18. Paulian, R. (1981). Les mammifères: Vestiges d'un monde disparu. In Oberlé, P. (ed.),Madagascar—un sanctuaire de la nature, KINTANA, Riedisheim, France, pp. 75–94.Google Scholar
  19. Petter, J.-J. (1962). Recherches sur l'écologie et l'éthologie des Lémuriens Malgaches.Mém. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Sér. A. Zool. 27 (1): 1–146.Google Scholar
  20. Petter, J.-J., and Charles-Dominique, P. (1979). Vocal communication in prosimians. In Doyle, G. A., and Martin, R. D. (eds.),The Study of Prosimian Behavior, Academic Press, New York, San Francisco, and London, pp. 247–305.Google Scholar
  21. Petter, J.-J., and Peyriéras, A. (1974). A study of the population density and home range ofIndri indri in Madagascar. In Martin, R. D., Doyle, G. A., and Walker, A. C. (eds.),Prosimian Biology, Duckworth, London, pp. 39–48.Google Scholar
  22. Petter, J.-J., Albignac R., and Rumpler, Y. (1977).Faune de Madagascar, Vol. 44. Mammifères Lémuriens (Primates Prosimiens), ORSTOM/CNRS, Paris.Google Scholar
  23. Pollock, J. I. (1975a). Field observations onIndri indri: A preliminary report. In Tattersall, I., and Sussman, R. W. (eds.),Lemur Biology, Plenum Press, New York and London, pp. 287–311.Google Scholar
  24. Pollock, J. I. (1975b).Social Behavior and Ecology of Indri indri, Ph.D. thesis, University of London, London.Google Scholar
  25. Pollock, J. I. (1977). The ecology and sociology of feeding inIndri indri. In Clutton-Brock (ed.),Primate Ecology. Feeding and Ranging Behavior of Lemurs, Monkeys and Apes, Academic Press, London, pp. 37–69.Google Scholar
  26. Pollock, J. I. (1979). Female dominance inIndri indri.Folia Primatol. 31: 143–164.Google Scholar
  27. Pollock, J. I. (1986). The song of the Indris (Indri indri; Primates: Lemuroidea): Natural history, form, and function.Int. J. Primatol. 7: 225–267.Google Scholar
  28. Salisbury, M., Newman, O., and Curl, D. (1988).Madagaskar—Land der Lemuren Film, BBC Bristol and WNET 13 New York, NDR, Germany.Google Scholar
  29. Schmidt, R., Radin, J., and Brodie, J. (1989).MacRecorder ® User's Guide, Farallon Computing, Emeryville.Google Scholar
  30. Schultz, A. H. (1972).Die Primaten, Edition Rencontre, Lausanne.Google Scholar
  31. Schwarz, E. (1931). A revision of the genera and species of Madagascar Lemuridae.Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1931: 399–428.Google Scholar
  32. Sonnerat, M. (1782).Voyage aux Indes orientales et à la Chine, Froulé, Paris.Google Scholar
  33. Tattersall, I. (1982).The Primates of Madagascar, Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  34. Thorpe, W. H. (1961).Bird-Song. The Biology of Vocal Communication and Expression in Birds, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  35. United States Board on Geographic Names (1955).Official Standard Names Gazetteer No. 2: Madagascar, Reunion and the Comoro Islands, Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  36. Wickler, W. (1974). Duette und Paarbindung bei Tieren.Mitt. Max-Planck-Ges. 1974: 237–252.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Urs Thalmann
    • 1
  • Thomas Geissmann
    • 1
  • Arsène Simona
    • 2
  • Thomas Mutschler
    • 1
  1. 1.Anthropologisches Institut und Museum der Universität Zürich-IrchelZürichSwitzerland
  2. 2.Chef de Poste de la RNI 12 MarojejyAndapaMadagascar

Personalised recommendations