Advertisement

Psychopharmacologia

, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp 305–314 | Cite as

Effect of ethanol, bourbon and various ethanol levels on Y-maze learning in the goldfish

  • Ralph S. Ryback
Original Investigations

Summary

Large goldfish, 15–20 cm long, were trained in a continuous Y-maze in two continuous and concomitant experiments. In the first experiment synthetic ethanol solutions of 400 mg/100 ml (400 mg-%), and 650 mg-% were compared with water controls as to the rate of learning after 2 hours exposure to the same ethanol solutions, respectively. In the second experiment synthetic ethanol solutions, with a low congener content, of 400 mg-%, 550 mg-% and 650 mg-% and a bourbon solution of 650 mg-% with a high congener content, were compared to water controls as to rate and retention of learning after varying time intervals. Four major results were obtained. First, large amounts of ethanol generally interfere with performance. Second, that subjects after 6 hours of continuous exposure had “adapted” to high levels of ethanol and performed similar to water controls or subjects after 72 hours of continuous exposure. Third, that the reduction in the observed pharmacological effect of ethanol is due more to the prolonged presence of ethanol in the brain than to whether the level is rising or falling. Fourth, that there is a difference between the behavioral effect of ethanol, with a low congener content (similar to vodka) and bourbon with a high congener content. That is, the fish with bourbon learned more poorly than fish in ethanol solutions. The goldfish with its simple neuroanatomy and behavior is offered as a heuristic model to further delineate the variables of dose level, previous experience with alcohol at a given or rising level, initial exposure to alcohol or “adaptation” of the C.N.S. to its continuous presence and the type of beverage as to its congener content.

Key-Words

Alcohol, Ethyl Alcoholic Beverages Alcohol Intoxication Learning Fish 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Brill, H. C., andA. K. Presnelli: The physiological activity of certain alcohols and ether to goldfish. Ohio J. Sci.41, 431–440 (1941).Google Scholar
  2. Brusch, C. A., C. M. Cerrato, P. N. Papos, andF. A. Straccia: Clinical and laboratory evaluation of alcoholic beverages. Amer. J. Proctol.6, 140–147 (1955).Google Scholar
  3. Damrau, P., andE. Liddy: The whiskey congeners: comparison of whiskey with vodka as to toxic effects. Curr. ther. Res.2, 453–457 (1960a).Google Scholar
  4. — —: Hangovers and whiskey congeners: comparison of whiskey with vodka. J. nat. med. Ass. (Tuskegee, Ala.)32, 262–265 (1960b).Google Scholar
  5. Freedman, K. E., andK. M. Dubowsky: Chemical testing procedure for determination of ethyl alcohol. J. Amer. med. Ass.170, 47–71 (1959).Google Scholar
  6. Greenberg, L. A.: Center for alcohol studies, lRutgers-The State University, New Brunswick, New Jersey: Personal Communication (1988).Google Scholar
  7. Kraeplin, E.: Über die Beeinflussung einfacher psychischer Vorgänge durch einige Arzneimittel. Jena 1892.Google Scholar
  8. Levy, G., andS. P. Gucincki: Studies on biologic membrane permeation kinetics and acute toxicity of drugs by means of goldfish. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther.146, 80–86 (1946).Google Scholar
  9. Mellanby, E.: Medical Research Council (British), Special report series No. 31, London 1919.Google Scholar
  10. Overton, D. A.: State dependent learning produced by depressant and atropine-like-drugs. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.)10, 6–31 (1966).Google Scholar
  11. Rauschke, J.: Leistungsprüfung bei an- und abfallendem Blutalkoholgehalt unter besonderen Bedingungen. Dtsch. Z. ges. gerichtl. Med.43, 27–36 (1954).Google Scholar
  12. Raynes, A. E., and R.Ryback: The effect of alcoholic beverages of low and high congener content on the aggressive response of Betta Splendens. Quart. J. Alc. Stud. Suppl. (in press) (1969).Google Scholar
  13. Reynolds, G. S., andP. van Sommers: Effects of ethyl alcohol on avoidance behavior. Science132, 42–43 (1960).Google Scholar
  14. Ryback, R.: State dependent or “dissociated” learning with alcohol in the goldfish. Quart. J. Stud. Alcohol (in press) (1968).Google Scholar
  15. -, and D.Ingle: Paper presented at the eastern psychological association meeting. Washington, D. C., April 1968.Google Scholar
  16. - B.Percarpio, and J.Vitale: The equilibration and metabolism of ethanol and the toxicity of alcohol beverages in the goldfish, a new animal for alcohol research. To be published (1969).Google Scholar
  17. Sachs, E.: Dissociation of learning in rats and its similarities to dissociative states in man. Chap. 13 in: Comparative Psychopathology: Animals and Human, pp. 249–304. Stratton, Inc. 1967.Google Scholar
  18. Snell, C. A.: The congener content of alcoholic beverages. Quart. J. Stud. Alcohol.19, 69–71 (1958).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1969

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ralph S. Ryback
    • 1
  1. 1.Alcohol Study UnitBoston City Hospital and Harvard Medical SchoolUSA

Personalised recommendations