International Journal of Biometeorology

, Volume 30, Issue 4, pp 323–332 | Cite as

Long-term effects of an increased CO2 concentration on terrestrial plants in model ecosystems. Morphology and reproduction ofTrifolium repens L.and Lolium perenne L.

  • D. Overdieck


Mixtures (ratio 1∶1, 45 seeds·dm−2) of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and white clover (Trifolium repens) were enclosed in environmentally controlled acrylic mini-glasshouses and supplied with additional CO2 from September 1981 until September 1982 (547–600 ppm, control: ∼340 ppm CO2). At growth optimum the single leaf area of white clover was 30% greater and the specific leaf weight 19% higher with additional CO2; with the perennial ryegrass it was 18% resp. 29%. The length growth of the white clover petioles was enhanced by the additional CO2: in the beginning 67% longer leafstalks, at growth optimum no effect and at the end of the experiment 100%. At growth optimum the specific petiole weight was approximately 52% higher. When the growing was terminated the blades of perennial ryegrass were 19% longer at high CO2. The average volume of the flowerheads was about 53% greater and the adult ears 13% longer. The number of flowers per flower head and the number of earlets per ear did not increase significantly. On an average the white clover seeds were 28% heavier and the caryopses were 4% lighter.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. APEL, P. (1974): Wachstum von Weizenkaryopsen bei verschiedener CO2-Konzentration. Biochem. Physiol. Pflanzen (BPP), 166: 475–480.Google Scholar
  2. APEL, P. (1976): Grain Growth and Carbohydrate Content in Spring Wheat at Different CO2-Concentrations. Biochem. Physiol. Pflanzen, 169: 355–362.Google Scholar
  3. BURDON, J. J. (1983): Biological flora of the British isles.Trifolium repens L. Journal of Ecology, 71: 307–330.Google Scholar
  4. CARLSON, R. W., BAZZAZ, F. A. (1982): Photosynthetic and Growth Response to Fumigation with SO2 at Elevated CO2 for C3 and C4 Plants. Oecologia (Berl.), 54: 50–54.Google Scholar
  5. COCK, J., YOSHIDA, S. H.. (1973): Changing sink, and source relations in rice (Oryza sativa) using carbon dioxide enrichment in the field. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. (Tokyo), 19: 229–234.Google Scholar
  6. HARDMAN, L. L., BRUN, W. (1971): Effect of atmospheric carbon dioxide enrichment at different developmental stages on growth and yield components of soybeans. Crop Science, 11: 886–888.Google Scholar
  7. IMAI, K., MURATA, Y. (1976): Effect of Carbon Dioxide Concentration on Growth and Dry Matter, Production of Crop Plants. I. Effects on leaf area, dry matter, tillering, dry matter distribution ratio, and transpiration. Japan. J. Crop Sci., 45: 598–606.Google Scholar
  8. KRIEDEMANN, P. E., SWARD, R. J., DOWNTON, W. J. S. (1976): Vine Response to Carbon Dioxide Enrichment during Heat Therapy. Aust. J. Plant Physiol., 3: 605–618.Google Scholar
  9. LINDSTROM, R. S. (1965): CO2 and its effect on the growth of roses. Proc. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci., 87: 521–524.Google Scholar
  10. MYTTON, L. R. (1973): The effects of seed weight on the early growth and nodulation of white clover. Annals of applied biology, 73: 329–338.Google Scholar
  11. OVERDIECK, D., BOSSEMEYER, D., LIETH, H. (1984): Long-term Effects of an Increased CO2 Concentration Level on Terrestrial Plants in Model-Ecosystems. I. Phytomass Production and Competition ofTrifolium repens L. andLolium perenne L. Progress in Biometeorology, 3: 344–352.Google Scholar
  12. RAPER, C. D., PEEDIN, G. F. (1978): Photosynthetic rate during steady-state growth as influenced by carbon-dioxide concentration. Bot. Gaz., 139 (2): 147–149.Google Scholar
  13. SCARISBRICK, D. H., IVINS, J. D. (1970): Some aspects of competition between pasture species: The effect of environment and defoliation. Journal of applied ecology, 7: 417–428.Google Scholar
  14. SIONIT, N., STRAIN, B. R., HELLMERS, H. (1981): Effects of different concentrations of atmospheric CO2 on growth and yield components of wheat. J. agric. Sci., Camb., 79: 335–339.Google Scholar
  15. SIONIT, N., HELLMERS, H., STRAIN, B. R. (1982): Interaction of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment and Irradiance on Plant Growth. Agron. J., 74 (4): 721–725.Google Scholar
  16. WITTWER, S. H. (1970): Aspects of CO2 enrichment for crop production. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 13: 249–251.Google Scholar
  17. WONG, S. C. (1979): Elevated Atmospheric Partial Pressure of CO2 and Plant Growth. I. Interactions of Nitrogen Nutrition and Photosynthetic Capacity in C3 and C4 Plants. Oecologia (Berl.), 44: 68–74.Google Scholar
  18. WULFF, R. D., STRAIN, B. R. (1982): Effects of CO2 enrichment on growth and Photosynthesis inDesmodium paniculatum. Can. J. Bot., 60: 1084–1091.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Swets & Zeitlinger 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Overdieck
    • 1
  1. 1.FB 5, Biologie/Chemie, Fachgebiet ökologieUniversität OsnabrückOsnabrückFRG

Personalised recommendations