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Plant and Soil

, Volume 170, Issue 1, pp 209–231 | Cite as

How do earthworms affect microfloral and faunal community diversity?

  • George G. Brown
Soil Faunal Relationship

Abstract

Much of the work regarding earthworm effects on other organisms has focused on the functional significance of microbial-earthworm interactions, and little is known on the effects of earthworms on microfloral and faunal diversity. Earthworms can affect soil microflora and fauna populations directly and indirectly by three main mechanisms: (1) comminution, burrowing and casting; (2) grazing; (3) dispersal. These activities change the soil's physico-chemical and biological status and may cause drastic shifts in the density, diversity, structure and activity of microbial and faunal communities within the drilosphere. Certain organisms and species may be enhanced, reduced or not be affected at all depending on their ability to adapt to the particular conditions of different earthworm drilospheres. A large host of factors (including CaCO3, enzymes, mucus and antimicrobial substances) influence the ability of preferentially or randomly ingested organisms to survive (or not) passage through the earthworm gut, and their resultant capacity to recover and proliferate (or not) in earthworm casts. Small organisms, particularly microflora and microfauna, with limited ability to move within the soil, may benefit from the (comparatively) long ranging movements of earthworms. Microflora and smaller fauna appear to be particularly sensitive to earthworm activities, and priming effects enhancing nutrient release, particularly in casts, are common. Larger fauna such as microarthropods, enchytraeids and Isopods may be enhanced under some conditions (e.g., in earthworm middens), but in other cases earthworm activity may lead to a decrease in their populations due to competition for food (microbes and organic materials), and spatial and temporal changes in food abundance. Nevertheless, considering the presently available data, the beneficial interactions of earthworms and microflora and fauna appear to far outweigh the potential negative effects. However, much is still unknown regarding the interactions of earthworms of different ecological categories on the diversity and function of microfloral and faunal communities, and much more interdisciplinary research is needed to assess the potential role of earthworms in regulating the diversity of microflora and fauna in soil systems and the potentially beneficial or harmful effects this regulation may have on ecosystem function and plant growth in different ecosystems.

Key words

diversity earthworms soil fauna soil microflora soil processes 

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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • George G. Brown
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Crop and Soil Sciences and Institute of EcologyUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA

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