Advertisement

Plant and Soil

, Volume 77, Issue 2–3, pp 183–192 | Cite as

Water relations, ethylene production, and morphological adaptation ofFraxinus pennsylvanica seedlings to flooding

  • Z. C. Tang
  • T. T. Kozlowski
Article

Summary

Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. seedlings that were 150 days old adapted well to flooding of soil with stagnant water for 28 days. Early stomatal closure, followed by reopening as well as hypertrophy of lenticels and formation of adventitious roots on submerged portions of stems appeared to be important adaptations for flood tolerance. Leaf water potential (ψ1) was consistently higher in flooded than in unflooded seedlings, indicating higher leaf turgidity in the former. This was the result of (1) early reduction in transpiration associated with stomatal closure, and (2) subsequently increased absorption of water by the newly-formed adventitious roots as stomata reopened and transpiration increased. Waterlogging of soil was followed by large increases in ethylene content of stems, both below and above the level of submersion. Formation of hypertrophied lenticels and adventitious roots on flooded plants was correlated with increased ethylene production. However, the involvement of various compounds other than ethylene in inducing morphological changes in flooded plants is also emphasized.

Key words

Adaptation Adventitious roots Ethylene Flooding Fraxinus pennsylvanica Lenticels Turgidity Water potential Water relations 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Abeles F B 1973 Ethylene in Plant Biology. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Blake T J and Reid D M 1981 Ethylene, water relations, and tolerance to waterlogging of threeEucalyptus species. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 8, 497–505.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Broadfoot W H and Williston H L 1973 Flooding effects on southern forests. J. For. 71, 584–587.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chang C 1982 Rooting cuttings with ethephon. Am. Nurseryman 156, 81–82.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Coutts M P 1981 Effects of waterlogging on water relations of actively growing and dormant Sitka spruce seedlings. Ann. Bot. 47, 747–753.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Haissig B E 1974 Influences of auxin and auxin synergists on adventitious root primordium initiation and development. N. Z. J. For. Sci. 4, 311–323.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hall T F and Smith G E 1955 Effect of flooding on woody plants. West sandy dewatering project, Kentucky Reservoir. J. For. 53, 281–285.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hook D, Brown C L and Kormanik P O 1970 Lenticels and water root development of swamp tupelo under various flooding conditions. Bot. Gaz. 131, 217–224.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hook D D and Scholtens J R 1978 Adaptations and flood tolerance of tree species.In Plant Life and Anaerobic Environments. Eds. D D Hook and R M M Crawford, pp. 299–331. Ann Arbor Science Publs. Ann Arbor, Michigan.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jackson M B and Campbell D J 1975 Movement of ethylene from roots to shoots, a factor in the response of tomato plants to waterlogged soil conditions. New Phytol. 74, 397–406.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kawase M 1972 Effect of flooding on ethylene concentration in horticultural plants. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 97, 584–588.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kawase M 1974 Role of ethylene in induction of flooding damage in sunflower. Physiol. Plant. 31, 29–38.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kawase M 1976 Ethylene accumulation in flooded plants. Physiol. Plant. 36, 236–241.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kawase M 1978 Anaerobic elevation of ethylene concentration in waterlogged plants. Am. J. Bot. 65, 736–740.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kawase M 1981 Anatomical and morphological adaptation of plants to waterlogging. HortScience 16, 8–12.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kender W J, Hall L V, Adders L E and Forsyth F R 1969 Stimulation of rhizome and shoot growth of the lowbush blueberry by 2-chloroethanephosphonic acid. Can. J. Plant Sci. 49, 95–96.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kozlowski T T 1982 Water Supply and Tree Growth. Part II. Flooding. For. Abstr. 43, 145–161.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kozlowski T T and Pallardy S G 1979 Stomatal responses ofFraxinus pennsylvanica seedlings during and after flooding. Physiol. Plant. 46, 155–158.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kramer P J and Jackson W T 1954 Causes of injury to flooded tobacco plants. Plant Physiol. 29, 241–245.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Loucks W L and Keen R A 1973 Submersion tolerance of related seedling trees. J. For. 71, 496–497.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Newsome R E, Kozlowski T T and Tang Z C 1982 Responses ofUlmus americana seedlings to flooding of soil. Can. J. Bot. 60, 1685–1695.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pereira J S and Kozlowski T T 1977 Variation among woody angiosperms in response to flooding. Physiol. Plant. 41, 184–192.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Regehr D L, Bazzaz F A and Buggess W R 1975 Photosynthesis, transpiration and leaf conductance ofPopulus deltoides in relation to flooding and drought. Photosynthetica 9, 52–61.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Scholander P F, Hammell H T, Bradstreet E D and Hemmingsen E A 1965 Sap pressure in vascular plants. Science 148, 339–346.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sena Gomes A R and Kozlowski T T 1980 Growth responses and adaptations ofFraxinus pennsylvanica seedlings to flooding. Plant Physiol. 66, 267–271.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Smith K A and Restall S W F 1971 The occurrence of ethylene in anaerobic soil. J. Soil. Sci. 22, 430–443.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Smith K A and Russell R S 1969 Occurrence of ethylene and its significance in anaerobic soil. Nature London 222, 769–771.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sojka R E and Stolzy L H 1980 Soil oxygen effects on stomatal response. Soil Sci. 130, 350–358.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Stolzy L H, Taylor O C, Letey J and Szuskiewicz T E 1961 Influence of soil-oxygen diffusion rates on susceptibility of tomato plants to air-borne oxidants. Soil Sci., 91, 151–155.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tang Z C and Kozlowski T T 1982 Some physiological and morphological responses ofQuercus macrocarpa seedlings to flooding. Can. J. For. Res. 12, 196–202.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tang Z C and Kozlowski T T 1982 Physiological, morphological, and growth responses ofPlatanus occidentalis to flooding. Plant and Soil 66, 243–255.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tang Z C and Kozlowski T T 1982 Some physiological and growth responses ofBetula papyrifera to flooding. Physiol. Plant. 55, 415–420.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wallace R H 1928 Histogenesis of intumescences in the apple induced by ethylene gas. Am. J. Bot. 15, 509–524.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hoffenden L M and Priestley J H 1924 The toxic action of coal gas upon cork and lenticel formation. Ann. Appl. Biol. 11, 42–53.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Yang S F 1980 Regulation of ethylene biosynthesis. HortScience 15, 238–243.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Yelenosky G 1964 Tolerance of trees to deficiencies of soil aeration. Proc. Int. Shade Tree Conf. 40, 127–147.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff/Dr W. Junk Publishers 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Z. C. Tang
    • 1
  • T. T. Kozlowski
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ForestryUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations